The Top Three Reported Benefits of Resistant Starch

What does it do, primarily?

I’d say among the hundreds of anecdotes from thousands of people trying it out worldwide, it’s: improved blood glucose regulation—both fasting blood glucose and blunting of spikes after starch foods—vivid dreaming with deeper sleep, and batter bathroom TMI: regularity, constipation, improved stool consistency.

In an ordered list, 1, 2, 3, I’m thinking we put the TMI stuff at #2, right?

Richard Nikoley

I'm Richard Nikoley. Free The Animal began in 2003 and as of 2021, contains 5,000 posts. I blog what I wish...from health, diet, and food to travel and lifestyle; to politics, social antagonism, expat-living location and time independent—while you sleep—income. I celebrate the audacity and hubris to live by your own exclusive authority and take your own chances. Read More


  1. Stark Brandstone on February 2, 2014 at 10:47

    Yeah, TMI over dreams/sleep. Not that sleep isn’t important to health or that there isn’t enough evidence for the claim but it certainly is easier to track digestive benefits from ingested supplements than sleep and dreams.

    • Lenny on February 2, 2014 at 11:06

      Didn’t get the #2 joke, obviously

  2. Darin on February 2, 2014 at 10:55

    For those who are experiencing better sleep are you taking RS right before bed? I’ve avoided taking RS before bed because I put it in water and don’t want to drink much water prior to sleep to avoid waking up to urinate.

    I take RS first thing in the morning prior to my coffee but have not noticed better sleep. This might change based on the responses.

    • gabriella kadar on February 2, 2014 at 11:28

      Darin, mix 2 tablespoons of PS into two tablespoons of yoghurt. You may or may not need to add a little bit of water, not much but it’s pretty smooth. I was just wondering if coconut milk would achieve the same result since it ought to keep the starch suspended until it’s consumed. Coconut milk is thick enough. Even milk works better than water. Don’t know about almond ‘milk’ or rice ‘milk’ but they’ve got a lot of sugar added.

      I took tapioca starch last night and it didn’t appear to have the same effect on remembering dreams. Took it this morning on an empty stomach. No significant effect on blood sugar. But 4 hours later, still not having eaten anything, blood sugar was entirely stable even though I was hungry. So it’s doing that, keeping blood glucose from dropping.

    • Ellen on February 4, 2014 at 07:23

      Beth, thanks for posting that. I had some good results with Prescript Assist, which enabled me to take the PS without getting headaches or cramping and see some better sleep and improved blood sugars. And have for while been considering trying the probiotic 3 to see if it improves anything further but wondering if it would be worth it to spend the money since there was nothing overt that was uncomfortable. But your experience makes me think I should give it a whirl. It prompted me to order some now. Will report back.

    • BethM on February 4, 2014 at 05:43

      Darin, I take all of my potato starch first thing in the morning in water, on an empty stomach and I’m still experiencing the improved sleep and vivid dreams. However, that didn’t start until I changed my probiotic. I was taking Prescript Assist, and if I didn’t take PS right before bed, I had no change in sleep/dreams. I recently switched over to Probiotic-3, which Dr BG highly recommends, and the change in my sleep/dreams was instant. I just didn’t have enough good bacteria for the PS to make enough of a difference, I suppose.

    • BethM on February 5, 2014 at 07:59

      Ellen, I hope it works as well for you as it has for me! In addition to the improved sleep/dreams, I also went from having really putrid gas from potato starch (I couldn’t even stand MYSELF!) to having pretty much odor free gas when I switched to Probiotic-3. I have also seen some improvement in my candida overgrowth symptoms and my mood and energy have been better. I really can’t say enough good things about it.

    • Bethie on February 8, 2014 at 12:12

      Hi BethM, can you tell me what Probiotic-3 is? Is it VSL-3? And do you do anything else for probiotics like kefir, sauerkraut, kombucha, etc? Very interested in your post!

    • Michael M on February 12, 2014 at 06:59

      I’ve started (on the advice of my wife) having potato starch in the morning. I take a teaspoon (not heaping – just a small mound) and dissolve it in a separate small glass of fresh coffee! Stir immediately – it’s like having hot coffee pudding in the morning. I don’t gulp it, just eat it with a teaspoon in small amounts as I read my paper – and wash it down with my regular cup of Joe (with milk, no sugar).
      Not bad! And yes – I do get GERD symptoms occasionally – this does help along with my “little purple pill” equivalent!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 07:33

      If you’re putting it in hot coffee (and you say it’s pudding) then you are getting zero RS. Essentially, it’s rather like just a tsp of sugar, only it’s fast absorbing starch.

    • KAWAM on April 28, 2014 at 07:28

      OOOH, how about COLD coffee? (I hate re-heated coffee, but will drink left-overs cold.)

  3. kayumochi on February 2, 2014 at 11:52

    Began the 4 tbs of PS in May 2013 and it took many months before I became leaner with no other changes in my diet. Was jealous of those with improved stool consistency because I had none … until recently when I upped the PS to the 6-8 tbs range.

  4. Sarabeth Matilsky on February 2, 2014 at 12:04

    I’m curious to hear from anyone who’s suffered from any of the following symptoms prior to beginning a RS regimen: are you feeling better now? How long did it take? What sort of “protocol” do you follow?

    –Urinary frequency/pain
    –“Fuzzy Head”/Bloated Belly/”feeling too full”

    • Harriet on February 2, 2014 at 15:25

      My fluctuating diarrhoea and constipation changed overnight from the first tablespoon. I thought I was just getting one of my good days (nothing works that fast does it?). But the good days continued. Even when I inadvertently ate something I shouldn’t have which usually lead to a Bristol 6 (like liquid) I only went to a 5. I’ve been taking it a month now and I vary from a 3/4 through to a 4/5 with mostly a comfortable 4.

      I take 2 tbs in the morning before breakfast with a probiotic. 1tbs late afternoon and 2 just before bed.

      I had a bit of a bloated belly for the first fortnight but not since.

    • gabriella kadar on February 2, 2014 at 19:03

      I just take it once or twice per day on empty stomach and it gives me a settled stomach feeling. Improves sleep quality (REM) regardless what time of day I take it. Prefer to take it on an empty stomach.

      If I eat vegetables plus PS, poop is Bristol 4 to 4.5. Not enough vegetables: small pingpong balls but not hard ones. I don’t get gas or bloating. For me, it makes for Bristol 4 to 4.5 but only if I also have eaten vegetables. For some reason, unlike others, PS doesn’t induce farting. I don’t take more than 2 tablespoons at a time because 4 tablespoon doses cause some lower abdominal colicky pain as though it’s just too much to squish along. Did that with both PS and tapioca, same effect. For me it’s too much at once.

    • Charles on February 3, 2014 at 09:39

      My GF had diarrhea problems for decades. A couple of months of PS, plus Prescript-Assist SBOs completely cured it. The improvements started immediately, but it took a few months to be completely managed. She is now seeing inflammation reduction (our hypothesis) based on the fact that she has not lost any weight, but her face (and mine) are noticeably thinner.

      I have noticed a significant improvement in mood and background anxiety. What was described as “foggy brain,” is gone.

    • ozquoll on February 3, 2014 at 22:05

      Charles, I have had the same improvement in mood and anxiety levels. I have also seen a big improvement to a long-term knee injury and chronic tension that i held in my shoulders. I put this down to a decrease in inflammation, and am planning to get some blood tests to confirm.

      Even better (I think) is that I didnt anticipate those results – I started taking PS to help my blood glucose, which it did.

      One more thing – I didnt notice the mood improvements till I was taking more than 4 tablespoons a day.

    • BethM on February 4, 2014 at 05:48

      Sarabeth, I was dealing with constipation, intermittent depression and brain fog. All of these have greatly improved since I started taking potato starch. But it’s not JUST the potato starch. In the morning, I take all of my PS (3 Tbsp right now), 2 tsp. psyllium powder and a scoop of Amazing Grass ORAC. Even when I was slowly titrating up w/PS and was only taking a teaspoon morning and night, the above mix (I use a shaker cup) improved my constipation immediately.

      Changing from Prescript Assist to Probiotic-3 also made a big difference for me. I have a lot more energy now and my head is more clear. Less depression, as well.

    • Sarabeth Matilsky on February 4, 2014 at 17:20

      Thank you – these are fascinating puzzle pieces, and I’m looking forward to being able to post something useful myself in a few months or so…

    • Jon McRae on April 28, 2014 at 09:27

      I have started to notice that with the improved REM sleep, last night I could have sworn that I was back on the fire line with the dream that I had, my mood swings, I swear I was following my wife’s menstrual cycle swings, I am starting to have stronger feelings of well being which lead to me being happier. Happy gut = Happy Brain?

    • Charles on April 28, 2014 at 09:47

      Absolutely, happy gut= happy brain.

      Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects.
      Messaoudi M1, Lalonde R, Violle N, Javelot H, Desor D, Nejdi A, Bisson JF, Rougeot C, Pichelin M, Cazaubiel M, Cazaubiel JM.
      Author information
      In a previous clinical study, a probiotic formulation (PF) consisting of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (PF) decreased stress-induced gastrointestinal discomfort. Emerging evidence of a role for gut microbiota on central nervous system functions therefore suggests that oral intake of probiotics may have beneficial consequences on mood and psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of PF in rats, and its possible effects on anxiety, depression, stress and coping strategies in healthy human volunteers. In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30 d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P < 0·05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P < 0·05; somatisation, P < 0·05; depression, P < 0·05; and anger-hostility, P < 0·05), the HADS (HADS global score, P < 0·05; and HADS-anxiety, P < 0·06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P < 0·05) and the UFC level (P < 0·05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers.

    • eddie on May 25, 2014 at 06:46

      Wondering how you’re knee and shoulders are doing because it sounds very close to my symptoms. Are you still better? Still taking 4 TB a day of PS?

  5. Deb on February 2, 2014 at 12:30

    I did the American Gut project and my gut results came back as mostly firmicutes and bacteroidetes with only tiny amounts (like 0.01%) of other types. There was no bifidus listed in my results. I tried the 3 T RS in yogurt or kefir for a week. I can’t say if it gave me heartburn or if it was from something else, but I had terrible heartburn. I am going to start back at a lower dose of say 1 t and see if I can work it up slowly once the heartburn is gone. I seem to be sleeping well.

    • Annika on February 2, 2014 at 17:19

      I have also experienced heartburn with potato starch. I just began my 4th potato starch trial; the other three times I tried it I ended up with heartburn and quit. I’m still (foolishly?) hoping it was all coincidence. My dose is dialed back to 1/2 a teaspoon per day. I’ve added lentils and cooled potatoes and rice to my diet too – but I’m really hoping the PS ends up working for me.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 2, 2014 at 17:40

      Annika, do 8 TABLESPOONS in water, empty stomach in the morning, empty stomach and don’t eat until the afternoon,

      Do that for a few days, tell me about your heartburn then.

      I was a chronic sufferer since a teenager, as is my dad and three brothers. I know heartburn like no other.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 2, 2014 at 17:42

      All you’re doing is feeding the stuff causing the heartburn, not flushing them down the drain with bait.

    • Resurgent on February 3, 2014 at 09:18

      There is a good 3 part article on heartburn here:

    • Harriet on February 3, 2014 at 00:02

      Has that been tried in other conditions? If such a hefty dose gets rid of one undesirable critter it might get rid of others.

    • Annika on February 3, 2014 at 12:42

      Hmm. If a small amount of PS causes heartburn, the solution is to take a shit-ton of it? A ballsy strategy. I just might give it a shot (not right away, I have a bad cold and don’t want to confound things).

      A note: I NEVER have heartburn normally, only when taking potato starch. Although this time around I haven’t had heartburn – I’ve taken 1/2 tsp of PS daily for three days, and so far so good. Fingers crossed. I’m much more inclined to increase my dose gradually rather that blast out my system with 8 tablespoons (yikes).

    • Deb on February 4, 2014 at 05:33

      Yeah, I’m not brave enough to try that either! But last night I took 1 teaspoon in kefir and no problems at all so far. I am hoping my heartburn was from something else.

    • Annika on February 10, 2014 at 12:23

      Last week I switched from potato starch to tapioca starch and got the same result: heartburn and dyspepsia, no farts. It’s a delayed reaction, though – I’m fine for 2 or 3 days on RS, then the heartburn kicks in, then I quit the RS but still have heartburn for a couple of days. I started out taking 1 TBS and went down in dose in hopes of reducing my symptoms.

      My gut is usually just fine, and I’m pretty darned healthy. That said, are my symptoms on RS an indication that I have low-level SIBO, and that the bugs in my small intestine are having a big party courtesy of the RS I’m tossing down there, and that’s what is causing my symptoms?

      I’ve been reading a bunch over at Grace/Dr. BG’s blog (url-removed/2013/11/how-to-cure-sibo-small-intestinal-bowel.html in particular – thanks again, Tim). Based on what I’ve learned there, I think my plan is to add a probiotic with soil-based organisms and to take some psyllium with my RS.

      On the one hand, it seems a bit silly to try to fix a problem that is non-existent unless I take supplemental RS. But all the success stories are so compelling and damn it, I want to experience those crazy x-rated dreams too! Oh, and it would be nice to fix my high fasting blood sugar and sky-high LDL, too. So I hate to just give up.

    • Annika on February 10, 2014 at 12:27

      I’m not quite brave enough to try this approach just yet. If a 1/2 teaspoon causes me so much discomfort, I hate to imagine what 8 tablespoons would do. I’ve considered it, but pussied out. Good news. though: plantain flour is in the mail!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 10, 2014 at 15:26


      Yes, do do the SBOs, post coming on that soon, including—and you heard it here first—my large pizza experiment over Saturday Olympic coverage.

      Are you a fraidy cat, lovely girl? Tried 4-8 TBS in water, immediately upon waking as a flush, as I have?

      (Chronic GERD guy since teenager).

      C’mon, girl, take one for the team, 3-4 days straight. Don’t you ever feel the need to just fuck it?

    • Richard Nikoley on February 10, 2014 at 15:31

      C’mon, heartburn is an event. I’ve killed it completely a million times in my life with a rounded tsp of baking soda stirred in water.

      You can only produce to much stomach acid and I’ve killed heartburn after eating a large pizza myself.

      You are being very pussy, Annika, luv.

    • Annika on February 11, 2014 at 18:04

      Ugh, felt so crappy all day today. This sucks. I’m most definitely NOT trying 8 tablespoons. Sticking with food sources, getting some SBOs, then MAYBE I’ll think about trying supplemental starch again. Right now it’s not worth it to take something that makes me feel so awful. Benefits be damned. I’m very jealous of everyone that can get away with taking PS and having farts be the only downside.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 11, 2014 at 19:59

      Sorry to hear it. Yea, try the probiotics. I’ll be blogging it soon but I am totally surprised by the quick results within days taking all three of these:

      – Proscript Assist
      – AOR Probiotic-3
      – Primal Assist

      I’ll be blogging it soon.

      Have you considered trying the plantain and/or banana flour?

    • Charles on February 11, 2014 at 20:05

      Do you mean Primal Flora?

    • gabriella kadar on February 11, 2014 at 20:15

      Annika, there are some ‘healthy’ foods which can cause heartburn, nausea etc. For example apples, blueberries, strawberries, cape gooseberries and blackberries. Because of the fibres in these fruits, the stomach takes a while to clear them. The persistence of the acids from these fruits can result in nausea when they clear from the stomach into the duodenum.

      Oranges are fine because they are mostly juice. The acid in citrus is not bound into the fruit mass. Lemon juice, lime juice will pass through without issue also because these are liquids.

      Something to consider although you have not reported what else you eat. Some people will get acid reflux during sleep if they eat an apple a couple of hours before bedtime. Applesauce, on the other hand, appears to be processed without incident because it is mush.

    • Ellen on February 12, 2014 at 11:23

      ” I got excited when I thought I had a bunch of farting coming”


      I had such a magnificent TMI this morning that I want to call in the neighbors to see!!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 11, 2014 at 20:43

      Primal Defense is actually what I meant.

    • Ellen on February 12, 2014 at 13:04

      Should read ” I wanted to call the neighbors”

      Otherwise it sounds like I never flushed. I did.

    • Annika on February 12, 2014 at 03:22

      I don’t eat a ton of fruit, usually an average of 1-2 servings a day. I hardly ever eat fruit in the evening. I have never had heartburn before; well, once in a blue moon maybe, but nothing that went on unrelenting for days until experimenting with potato starch and then tapioca starch. I also have a sensation of fullness (not bloating exactly – it’s hard to describe) in my epigastric region. I’ve been so excited about the potential benefits; this has been a very disappointing setback.

    • Deb on February 12, 2014 at 06:09

      I jumped right in with 3T a day, got heartburn & nausea for a week. Quit for a couple days and started back in with 1t (I mix mine with yogurt or kefir). Then went to 1T. No heartburn. Then back to 2T. Heartburn again. Milder than with 3T. So now I’m back to 1T again. I slept like a log and remember dreaming more on the 2T. I think maybe I will work up from 1T in smaller increments – maybe 1t at a time or even less. Or, try not taking 2T all at once. “TMI” is much improved with the yogurt/kefir/starch combination. Maybe it takes awhile for the right bacteria to build up. I did American Gut and was found to have hardly any lactobacillus and no bifidus.

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 07:49

      Annika – It sure sounds like you have what Norm R. and Grace warned us about — SIBO. Meaning maybe bacteria in your SI are fermenting the starch in the wrong place.

      Have you looked at Graces 7 steps? url-removed/2013/11/how-to-cure-sibo-small-intestinal-bowel.html It’s still a bit of a work in progress, I think she said she is reconsidering the psyllium and maybe changing a few other things slightly. We were working on a section in the book for recommendations, and kind of settled into 2 paths, one for the ‘commoner’ who has no issues, and one for folks with digestive problems. The second path will be the 7 steps.

      Then there’s also Norm’s method of starving everything for relief,
      but it doesn’t really sound like you are at that point. But it may be helpful. So, sorry we aren’t miracle workers, hopefully you figure out what works and let us know. No sense in keeping with something that clearly causes problems.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 08:10

      Yes, Norm agreed that intermittent therapeutic fasts ought to help with SIBO.

      However, and I especially stress with women: fasting does not mean eating less, but rather, getting your proper requirements over 5-6 days rather than 7.

    • Annika on February 12, 2014 at 09:09

      I think I must have low-grade SIBO, mild enough so I don’t normally have noticible symptoms but enough so that the RS I eat causes a wild orgy in my small intestine. I spent quite a few hours over at Dr. BG’s looking at the 7 steps. I have AOR Probiotic-3 on order and have been taking run-of-the-mill probiotics in the meantime. I plan on making sure I eat fermented foods every day – I brew my own water kefir and make saurkraut, but will ramp up my comsumption. I hope I don’t have to resort to a low-FODMAP or similar diet (give up onions?! Nooo!). I skip breakfast a few days a week already; I will try a longer fast.

      My plantain flour arrived in the mail yesterday, but I’m going to wait for my poor gut to settle down before I try it. Meanwhile, I have rice pudding and mashed potatoes in the fridge, and air-dried plantain chips in my cabinet.

      My symptoms are somewhat better today. This morning I got all excited when I thought I had a bunch of farting coming on, but alas, it amounted to nothing. I never would have imagined wishing for farts! My guess is there’s nothing left of the RS by the time in gets to my colon because of all those buggers in my small intestine.

      Deb, I initally started with a TBS of PS, and eventually dialled it back to a 1/2 tsp, which still caused symptoms. You’d think such a tiny amount wouldn’t do anything at all, especially since I’ve never been one to avoid potates. I guess it’s powerful stuff!

      Thanks for your help, everyone.

    • Annika on February 12, 2014 at 09:13

      Tim, could you elaborate about reconsidering the psyllium? Are you guys now thinking it’s not such a good idea?

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 09:25

      I don’t want to speak too much for Grace, but she indicated that psyllium was causing troubles for some people, maybe using too much, and she has some other ideas. If you use, it just stick to like 1/2tsp. I think it swells up too much and can kind of ‘bind things up’.

      The studies show psyllium as being very good at helping potato starch ferment, but too much is not a good thing.

      We have been working Grace pretty hard as Science Editor, one of these days she’ll get back to blogging.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 13:00

      “This morning I got all excited when I thought I had a bunch of farting coming on, but alas, it amounted to nothing.”

      ….Here I sit, broken hearted;
      Came to shit, but only farted

      Only scale makes a difference.

    • Tanya on February 12, 2014 at 23:22

      Is it possible that you have very slow motility? I ask because I think my daughter has SIBO, based on her history of digestive problems and lower abdominal bloat, but she’s been fine with the potato starch (1-1.5 tablespoons for I guess more than a month now? and fewer calories overall because she’s 10, so however this stuff scales for kids). She had a couple minor headaches and a little upset stomach in the first week or so, but we see that with both positive and negative digestive changes, and both are long gone now; she seems to be tolerating the PS fine at this point.

      But (and this is a wild-ass guess) I wonder if specifically slow motility through the small intestine would cause the symptoms you’re experiencing–maybe a SIBO with slightly different focus/weak spot than my daughter’s.

      I saw that Grace rec’d long walks to help with motility. For my son, triphala (a combo of herbs) was shockingly helpful at getting things moving in a more timely fashion.

    • Deb on February 13, 2014 at 06:50

      Well, heartburn & nausea came back, so had to temporarily quit the PS. I will try again with a smaller amount. Although I cut back to 1T symptoms got worse. I skipped it last night and just took yogurt by itself. Didn’t sleep as well.

    • Ellen on February 16, 2014 at 08:10


      My husband who does get heartburn when he succumbs to non PHD type desserts tried the potatoes starch and had something like what you describe. Not his normal heartburn (for which he secretly takes baking soda so I won’t be on his case for eating that crap). But the baking soda did not work for the discomfort he got from the potato starch. He had a hard time explaining how it was different, but when I read what you wrote about pressure and fullness it seemed to resonate for him.

      So he stopped the potato starch and cut way back on the resistant starch foods. Started taking Prescript Assist for about two weeks. Then started again with the potato starch at 1 teaspoon in water in the am. No problems so far. Two days ago I secretly put 2 teaspoons into the water and no problem with that so far either. Today I added AOR3 and another SBO probiotic that I had in the house, Body Biotic. These are taken at the same time as the potato starch in water. Will report progress.

    • Annika on February 16, 2014 at 05:39

      A quick update: I haven’t taken any potato starch or tapioca starch for a week now, and my symptoms are still not gone. Eating a bunch of air-dried plantain chips yesterday seemed to make me feel significantly worse, so I’m going to cut those out too.

      I’m very discouraged! I feel like the RS set something in motion in my small bowel that has become self-perpetuating. I’m also kicking myself for not listening to my body telling me that it didn’t like RS. I was so stoked about the potential benefits that I ignored my symptoms.

      “Heartburn” might not be the most accurate way to describe what I’m feeling. It’s mostly fullness or pressure in my epigastric region, sometimes all the way up to the base of my throat, but only mildly acidy or burning.

      My SBO probiotics should be arriving tomorrow. I’m wondering about cutting out ALL starchy foods to starve those buggers out. SCD diet, maybe?

    • Annika on February 16, 2014 at 08:15

      Thank you, Ellen! I look forward to your updates. This problem seems fairly unusual, so I appreciate any feedback!

    • Tanya on February 16, 2014 at 10:20

      We did GAPS for 8 months (very similar to SCD) and I transitioned the kids off by giving them Carbgest enzymes with the non-gaps legal carbs, if you want to consider an alternative. My son recently transitioned off those enzymes (for him, I think the potato starch was a helpful final push to not need the enzymes anymore–thank you Richard and Tim!) and my daughter still takes them (and still has lower abdominal bloating, though not trending worse with the potato starch–and I’m hopeful it’s part of a long-term improvement plan for her).

    • Richard Nikoley on February 16, 2014 at 10:31


      Whenever I would get chronic heartburn flair ups, nothing like a 30 hour water or iced tea fast (lunch to dinner next day, then another one in 2 days and it would completely reset me. You might consider taking the probiotics at the same time, or not, or try both ways, but in any case I’d take the probiotics as least for a couple of weeks before trying RS again.

      Sorry for your troubles, but looks like you’re the interesting guinea pig for the time being. If you figure it out, it will be good info for others I’m sure. So, now you’re in duty to society territory. 🙂

    • Annika on February 16, 2014 at 13:51

      Unique snowflake, that’s me!

      How about a bone broth fast? There doesn’t seem to be much in bone broth for bugs to eat, plus bone broth features prominently in the SCD and GAPS diets. And coffee with coconut oil – I would wish for death if I couldn’t have coffee.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 16, 2014 at 16:09

      You can try what you like, but when it comes to a fast, I’m a purist. Plus, if I were to drink calories, it world be scotch!

      (I’ve actually done this, though a long time ago—still dropped the pounds. 🙂

      Scotch fast!

    • Annika on February 17, 2014 at 03:48

      Richard, I took your advice, and am impressed at the dramatic results in such a short time period.

      We didn’t have any scotch in the house, so I substituted tequila. Wow, sipping on straight tequila was a bit much, so I made a pitcher of NorCal margaritas. I figured more fluids via the club soda could only help, and the lime and salt would provide much needed micronutrients and electrolytes.

      Now, this was the very first time I have intentionally skipped dinner. My intermittent fasts have always involved skipping breakfast. I know, not very intermittent, right? Anyway, the effects were astounding!

      Sometimes I feel a slight boost in mental clarity or energy levels when I skip breakfast; this afternoon/evening fast was entirely different. After several hours of nothing but NorCal margaritas, I felt euphoric. I wouldn’t say I gained mental clarity (kind of the opposite, actually), but I felt super upbeat, and – weird – my sense of humor was enhanced. I think this must have been the ketones kicking in.

      The euphoria didn’t last very long, unfortunately – is it possible I burned through my ketones too quickly? I then started feeling some gastric distress. Different from the heartburn/pressure/dyspepsia feeling I’ve been having, though, so I think that’s a positive sign. I ended up vomiting copious amounts. I suspect the fructose in the lime juice gave the bacteria in my small intestine too much fuel, and that’s what caused the nausea. I will definitely leave the lime out next time; even though it’s a sour fruit, there must have been enough carbs and fructose to feed the bugs. I’m sure I wouldn’t have puked if it wasn’t for the lime. Lesson learned.

      Everyone has been bragging about great sleep on PS – well, my tequila fast accomplished the same thing, I’m happy to report! After the vomiting, I experienced a profound calmness. I was so relaxed I actually fell over a couple of times! Then I fell asleep right on the bathroom floor, and slept soundly and deeply without even the comfort of a bed. Usually I need a certain kind of pillow to sleep well, but last night my head was just wedged behind the toilet, and I felt too comfortable to even move.

      Until this morning, anyway. I feel simply awful this morning, which can only mean that there there has been a massive die-off of the unwelcome bacteria in my small bowel. I was hoping to starve them out, but I had no idea it could happen so quickly!

      I think we may have stumbled across the perfect treatment for folks who can’t tolerate PS due to SIBO. After I clean up the vomit and broken glass, I’ll go post my experience at Dr. BG’s blog. Who needs 7 steps to heal SIBO now? What a waste of time. Tequila fast is the way to go!

    • tatertot on February 17, 2014 at 09:30

      Annika – you might do better with 12 steps instead of 7. A mixture of heroine and cocaine are effective, also, fyi.

    • David on February 17, 2014 at 09:46



      Rolling on the floor laughing my ass off. Nicely done.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 17, 2014 at 22:21


      I’m dyin’ here.

      That tears it. You’re in my will now to inherit chief blogger at FTA.

      Well done.

    • eddie on May 25, 2014 at 13:53

      Did you blog details on how I should take all 3 of the recommended probiotics? All on the same day on an empty stomach, etc?


    • George on December 25, 2014 at 05:55

      HAHaHa, this is soooooo funny

    • sylvie on June 13, 2015 at 21:49

      sounds like you have hiatal hernia.
      all your symptom describe it to me the way i have experience for years. Kind of feels like somebody as a fist up your throat from your solar plexus to your throat, kind of a chocking feeling right?. Makes your heart rate go fast when its worse.
      look it up on the internet and check in with a holistic doctor/or holistic Chiropractor who knows the will need to release
      good probiotic for sure and enzyme to help with allergy to food that causes the stomach lining to be week and causes the hiatal hernia. Avoid all night shade vegies and watever seem to be an issue
      here a link to help

  6. Mark. on February 2, 2014 at 12:52

    Raw potato starch with a little bacteria powder (keep-in-fridge type, supposedly 11 strains) seems to stop diarrhea for me reliably. I can’t swear it’s helped my blood sugar control (type 1 diabetic since 1970) but I’m still hoping. Problem is that skipping the starch for more than a few days seems to guarantee diarrhea. Perhaps something else is going on.

  7. Brian on February 2, 2014 at 13:51

    I would add appetite suppression as #4

    • Rob Turner on February 3, 2014 at 13:03

      Definitely appetite suppression. I eat breakfast at about 7am. When I take PS I don’t get hungry until 3pm, before PS it was 12pm, sometimes earlier.

    • BethM on February 4, 2014 at 05:52

      Agreed, appetite suppression is a big benefit.

  8. Marc on February 2, 2014 at 15:04

    yes # 2 for TMI.

    coincidental. Just returned from a week long business trip. No PS.
    Glad to be back home. and for TMI, it only took 4 days of on the road food and no PS to make a noticeable tmi difference… by the 4th and 5th day.

  9. Rook on February 2, 2014 at 16:17

    Just to throw in my anecdotal responses to the PS regimen. I take 2T in water upon waking and then again at around 4pm.

    Haven’t had any affect on dreams but have noticed that I am definitely sleeping less and still functioning fine. Down from ~8.5hrs to ~6hrs daily. Have also noticed significant appetite suppression with an accompanying 5kg drop on the scales.

    Might up my dose for a week or two to see if I can get some TMI changes…

  10. Debbie on February 2, 2014 at 18:51

    Had to stop for a couple of days due to it feeding candida too. Now I’m back on RS but with Greek yogurt and probiotics to see if it makes a difference.

    • Harriet on February 3, 2014 at 00:03

      Richard is feeding candida a known effect of PS?

    • DuckDodgers on February 3, 2014 at 20:08

      No. I can tell you with confidence that PS does not feed candida, so long as you are eating PHD-level starches. Candida have mitochondria, therefore after a few months of low carbing they can readily adapt to absorbing ketones as a prime fuel source. They create biofilms and hunker down while they figure out how to adapt.

      Conventional wisdom is to go on a low carb diet to “starve” candida. But, this only works until the Candida adapts to ketones. Once they adapt, they go nuclear — particularly since low carb diets create an alkaline environment in the large intestine (thanks to decreased fermentation) and Candida has been shown time and time again to be benign in acidic environments and pathogenic in alkaline environments. So, the low carb diet is a double-whammy for fungal infections because Candida will thrive off of ketones and grow pathogenically in the alkaline environment. This is why low carb diets promote fungal infections.

      PS has not been shown to be a fuel source for Candida, to my knowledge. Rather, eating sufficient PHD starches should reduce fueling ketones and the acidic environment from the PS fermentation should turn the Candida into a benign starch. I can tell you from first-hand experience (PHD + RS) that’s how easy it was to turn off Candida.

    • DuckDodgers on February 3, 2014 at 20:09

      Sorry, I meant turn Candida into a benign yeast (not a starch).

    • Yeastie on February 4, 2014 at 11:20

      I spent nearly 2 years on a very low carb diet and I now realize, given your comment, that eating low carb probably made me even more vulnerable to yeast infections, not less. The slightest over-indulgence can now lead to a yeast infection. One other negative consequence of long-term low-carbing for me is that I now find it difficult to eat a small amount of any sweet treat (I never had that problem before)–now one bite of sweet and I want MORE! So I just stay away from them (most of the time).

    • Ken on February 4, 2014 at 14:18

      sorry for not knowing this but even google hasn’t helped – PHD is what?

    • sootedninjas on February 4, 2014 at 14:43

      Perfect Health Diet by Jaminet

  11. Henry on February 2, 2014 at 19:53

    Hi Richard,

    So green, unripe bananas for RS and over-ripe bananas for those following Carb-Backloading? This is an interesting form of barbell strategy that Nassim Taleb might appreciate.



  12. Resurgent on February 2, 2014 at 21:03

    I take 2 TBS Potato Starch plus 1 TBS Psyllium husk plus 1 TSP Flax meal and 1 TSP plantain flour in a bowl of homemade milk kefir, once daily for the last 5 months. generally in the evening.
    My n=1 results have been as follows – Richard, Please bear with me as I am going beyond the ‘Top three”.

    (Upside – not in any specific order)

    1. Excellent bathroom habits
    2. Skin completely cleared up from various annoying skin issues from over 30 years.
    3. Never get tired – I’m 57 and not very active. In fact, now I have too much energy.
    4. Reset my circadium rhythm, I sleep a few hours after sunset and get up early.
    5. Sleep very well, this improved further with a tsp of bedtime honey (Seth Roberts) – now middle of the night bathroom visits are infrequent.
    6. Markedly reduced appetite.
    6. Regular Penile tumescence at dawn. 🙂

    (Downside – Yes I have noticed some )

    1. Increased sensitivity to junk food. I get uncomfortable in the stomach, get skin outbreaks, etc. etc. when ingesting a much smaller quantity of junk food than before. I have noticed an acute problem with foods with seed based industrially processed oils. Maybe this has turned me into a bad food barometer.

    2. Slight Hypertension – Systolic BP readings are higher by 5~10 mm Hg than before. Curiously they go back to normal on days of more than normal exercise. If I double my daily walk, it goes lower. Maybe the increased energy has something to do with this. I would welcome any advise on this from anyone.

    Overall, the entire experience is fascinating – Thanks Richard, Tim.

    • Resurgent on February 2, 2014 at 23:54

      I would like to add “Noticeably increased Mental Calm” to the list of Upside..

    • Art on February 3, 2014 at 03:02


      I took PS haphazardly last year but have been consistent this. Some bloating initially but that wore off.

      A bit more dreaming but, most conspicuously, increased equanimity and calm. On the drive to work I now happily sit at 80 mph listening to classical music; previously I always felt impelled to drive at 100 while listening to post-punk. Unprecedented.

    • Mo on February 3, 2014 at 05:10

      The equanimity and calm I feel from this is astonishing. The usual anxious thoughts are there at times, but it’s as if they are an echo from far away. I notice them from a distance, and they don’t bother me.

  13. phreebie on February 3, 2014 at 12:20

    I’ve taken to also drinking 10g o0f apple cider vinegar, sweetened with a teaspoon of honey in a glass of water, shortly after my daily 40g of PS with 5g psyllium husk in full fat milk.

    One of the first effects I noticed was an almost immediate reduction in the frequency/decibel/odour level of the fartage. Small toots rather than large bugles. I’ve been taking PS since Sept of last year, so I think I would have been reasonably well adapted.

    The fartage wasn’t really bad before, but noticeably less with the ACV.

    Skin – further improvement, which is good news for a 44 yo guy who’s had acne for the last 30 years.

    Mood seems even better recently.

    With the reduced fartage, I’m looking for some reason as to whether ACV could be negating some effects of the PS.

    I did find this research: I acknowledge that the paper is on the site of the ACV vendor, but believe that the research was completely independent and the vendor seized upon it for their marketing.


    I’m wondering whether the benefit is derived from the fermented material and acidity, that I would not have been getting from the milk, but which those of you taking PS with Kefir & sauerkraut etc, would be getting?

    If anybody knows of a good reason why this combination would be contra-indicated, I’d love to hear from you.

  14. sootedninjas on February 2, 2014 at 22:51

    for me it has to be a toss up between better sleep of 8+ hours daily and FBG/BG control. Before RS I have been struggling for years getting a good 6 hours sleep. I just assumed that it is part of “middle aging”. worth mentioning also is the best BM ever and consistently too.

  15. fel on February 3, 2014 at 03:47

    Hi i live in China and i m not sure what starchy powder they usually use but would rice starch be ok to potato starch?

  16. fel on February 3, 2014 at 03:51

    i just heard that often its Wheat starch. i can choose between corn, sweet potato, potato and rice starch, which, from a Low Carb Dieting perspective is best>

    • tatertot on February 3, 2014 at 12:41

      The best choices are potato starch, plantain flour, then tapioca starch. Regular corn starch, rice starch and sweet potato starch all have very little RS (2-3%).

      Potato starch is fine for low carb diet.

    • Rob O. on February 4, 2014 at 11:25

      I know to go with specifically potato starch, not flour, but with tapioca are the two the same? Not that I’m looking for some kind of affiliate plug, but what brand(s) of these top RS choices are you using?

      I’ve been doing BRM potato starch for a month now. I was nervous about how my post-RNY stomach would handle it, so I started slow and have tapered up to 3 TBS per day, roughly spread out as one tablespoon per meal. Next week, I’ll bump it to 4.

      I’m noticing small improvements in energy and mood, but definitely much more sound rest at night.

  17. Jane on February 3, 2014 at 04:01

    I would like to know whether the benefits of RS have anything to do with magnesium absorption. Fermentable fibre has been found to increase Mg absorption both in humans and animals. Other minerals, not clear.
    ‘Effects of Dietary Fibers on Magnesium Absorption in Animals and Humans’

    I think it would be very interesting if people could look up the symptoms of Mg deficiency and check whether they had them before using RS and now don’t.

    Blood glucose control is an obvious candidate. Obesity is another.
    ‘ Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children’

  18. Thomas on February 3, 2014 at 05:26

    Quick question, completely off-topic:
    Does a SBO synbiotic supplement (prescript-assist) has to be taken on an empty stomach, and with or without added RS?

    Sorry for hijacking the comment section 😉

    • Charles on February 3, 2014 at 09:45

      My understanding from TaterTot is that you want to take the SBOs with the potato starch, as the PS protects the bacteria.

    • Charles on February 3, 2014 at 09:51

      Also, since not mentioned, my fasting blood sugar is down 10 points on average, from 103-105 to low 90s.

    • tatertot on February 3, 2014 at 12:44

      I don’t think you HAVE to take SBO on empty stomach. I think all probiotics benefit from being taken alongside RS.

  19. BrazilBrad on February 3, 2014 at 05:34

    Just a bit of feedback. Anything over 2 tbs potato starch gave me bad contipation. Side note: I did not have this problem eating low-carb so that crap about eating a lot of meat giving you constipation does not hold true, at least for everyone. Also, tapioca/cassava starch did not give me this problem that potato starch did. Still trying to determine what the limit is on this – ie, less than 2tbs PS is OK for me? dunno yet.

  20. BrazilBrad on February 3, 2014 at 05:37

    Btw, was taking the PS with kefir. Dunno yet if that had anything to do with it.

    • DuckDodgers on February 3, 2014 at 08:03

      @BrazilBrad, yes kefir can contribute towards constipation. Here’s a quote from Natasha Campbell-McBride’s GAPS FAQ:

      If constipation persists for several months, does it mean you are doing something wrong? Is there anything you recommend in addition to enemas and juicing to help this?

      Try to replace high-protein dairy with high-fat dairy. In my experience adding high-protein dairy: whey, yoghurt and kefir, does miracles for those who are prone to diarrhoea. Constipation, however, is a different matter. If your patient is prone to chronic constipation introduce high-fat dairy: ghee, butter and sour cream, but not high-protein dairy, such as yoghurt, whey, kefir and cheese: high protein dairy can aggravate constipation. High fat content of sour cream will lubricate the gut wall and soften the stool.

      So, there you go. Try eliminating kefir for a bit and see if you improve gut function and stool lubrication. I would also do some bone broths to make sure the gut lining gets some healing ingredients (should help with mucus production, if I’m not mistaken). Over time, you should be able to reintroduce kefir back in once things get normalized.

  21. Kate on February 3, 2014 at 06:55

    This is great being able to read results in one place. I hope everyone who is on this boat reports in here. Been taking potato starch since last June. Anywhere from 2-6 tablespoons, usually in 2 doses. Occasionally I throw in beans or plantain chips, and or mix with another prebiotic like inulin, but have not yet regularized any of these. I’m 55, no known health issues except migraines/chronic headaches. My top results are:
    1) Better Sleep. It was pretty good already, now it is awesome. Dreams no different however.
    2) Better #2. Again, I thought I was in good shape already, but rs brings you to a different level. Like Gabriella, I notice volume of veggies effects results in a good way.
    3)Smoother, better energy levels. Again, an area I wasn’t complaining about before, but wow!
    4) I am calmer. Really like that.

    Downsides–well, lots of farts. If I I back off the PS it goes away. I added some probiotics a few months ago, including prescript assist. I think that may have helped 1-4 above, and farts a little.

    Speculation: I really got my migraines under control a couple years ago with PHD. In the course of that I noticed that fermented foods were a huge migraine trigger for me. Not immediately, but 4-6 hours downstream. So if I avoid fermented foods and otherwise stick with PHD I don’t get migraines. But I still have chronic daily headaches. Not particularly painful, but very annoying. When I had a colonoscopy at 50, I noticed that when I woke up the morning of the procedure completely empty, my head was beautifully clear, just perfect. I remembered that when I first saw this RS stuff, and decided to see if altering my gut bugs might help my headaches.

    Too early to declare success yet. There has been a gradual improvement, and January was really really good. If I can maintain that for a couple months I’ll know I’m on to something.

    Whether or not RS is the answer for my particular complaint, it is well worth it for the other benefits.

    I noticed Richard reported somewhere that the tartar that collects on the inside of his front lower teeth has cleared up with RS. I have the same collection point, really the only place I get tartar, but I get a lot there and quickly. However, the rate of collection seems to be slowing. I imagine that as a proxy for the rest of my body that I can’t see. So I hope I eventually get rid of that tartar completely.

    With regard to improved magnesium absorption accounting for some of the RS effects, it’s possible but I’m skeptical. I have tried magnesium every way imaginable, since it is frequently recommended for headaches. The only result I ever got was diarrhea, and that only after a big dose of chelate combined with a bath with around 4 cups of epsom salt.

  22. Deidre on February 3, 2014 at 07:44

    I agree with Kate that it is great to see results in one place.
    I have been taking 4 TBS, split into 2 doses about 10:30am with yogurt and 2 TBS before bed with a probiotic. Once a week only PS, some weeks one day with nothing. I have been on PS since about late Summer.
    #1 Blood sugar regulation. I have seen v.good numbers with foods that usually cause quite a spike. I am slowly moving toward adult onset Type 1 diabetes so the PS is great.
    #2 is an increased sense of calm/wellbeing. Quite a pleasant change of brain chemistry.
    #3 is improved sleep (tho I have also added honey at night). Initially on PS my sleep was amazing. 8 hours without interruption. Quite a change from awakening for 3 hours in middle of night. Then it seemed to switch to 6 hours of sleep, tho often 7 or 8. Still, better than before PS. More vivid dreams.
    #4 TMI seems to have settled back to normal. Still trying to tweak diet to incorporate more RS foods. That seems like a co-factor. Tiger Nuts and Plantain Flour are on the way.

  23. MrPotatoStarchHead on February 3, 2014 at 09:16

    I’ve been dabbling for a few weeks. Haven’t measured blood glucose but my list is: 1) Better sleep, 2) Greater sense of peace / well-being with more focus 3) and fantastic crapping.

  24. VW on February 3, 2014 at 10:32

    I just bought a shit-load of sauerkraut. I’m concentrating on putting a variety of different stuff in there to see how healthy of a gut I can get. I haven’t tasted sauerkraut since I was a kid and I hated it then, so we shall see how this goes.

    Nothing but potato starch, sauerkraut and sardines for a week…. I wonder what that’d do to me.

    PS – I reckon I’m IP banned. Had to use a proxy to post this.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 3, 2014 at 10:48

      VW, just cleaned out the ban list, so you should be good to go. You may hit first comment moderation if you post without the proxy, but it’s only the first time.

  25. Mike on February 3, 2014 at 11:37

    One adverse reaction I’ve had repeatedly since introducing 3-4 TBSPs of resistant starch (potato and tapioca) into my daily routine is profuse night sweats about 2-4 hours after my 1 TBSP pre-bedtime dose. It is especially pronounced if I’ve had something sweet to eat in the evening hours leading up to the pre-bedtime dose. This is happening to one degree or another about 75% of nights and leaves me feeling quite worn out in the mornings.

    I did a few daytime glucose tolerance experiments comparing blood glucose when preceded with RS versus no RS. I found that with RS my blood glucose reached similar peaks, but post-peak the levels fell more quickly than without RS. I’m wondering if, at night, I might be inducing a sort of reactive hypoglycemia which in turn causes the night sweats. I’ve tested myself a couple of times at night when I’ve woken up drenched, but there was nothing notable about the blood glucose score.

    Before RS, I had experienced much rarer instances of night sweats that corresponded with night time sugar consumption. Adding RS seems to really exaggerate this effect. With RS and a little something sweet (like a half teaspoon of honey) I essentially guarantee a night sweat. Any one else experience something similar?

    Otherwise, I feel very happy with RS’s effects in the bathroom. I also feel it is helping me hold on to muscle/strength gains – something I’ve struggled with in the past.

    • DuckDodgers on February 3, 2014 at 19:49

      I believe it gets stored as liver glycogen and gets released if your blood sugar gets too low. See tip #4 here.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 3, 2014 at 11:46

      So bizarre, Mike, since I’ve been chewing on a post about Seth Robert’s before bedtime honey. Each time I do it vs not, I end up getting 5-6 hours uninterrupted sleep before waking up for a piss. I drink quite a lot of water, club soda, & such, and when I do that, night time pees are common. When I don’t, not, but the honey seems to extend the time until I gotta go.

    • Mike on February 3, 2014 at 11:51

      My wife is doing the before bedtime honey experiment and it has had great benefits for her, specifically by eliminating her lifelong need to pee multiple times at night.

      I haven’t had much luck in finding other folks who have my night sweat issue, but I’ll keep looking.

    • Kate on February 3, 2014 at 12:08

      @ Mike, I get what I would quantify as mild night sweats, especially if I have alcohol. They don’t keep me awake, and I feel great in the morning. Since I’m 55 I attribute them to hot flashes, but the rs may contribute. I haven’t eaten appreciable sugar in years, but the other night someone had told the hostess at a dinner party that my husband and I were gluten free, and she supplied a fancy gluten free chocolate cake. I kept my mouth shut and ate a piece and still slept well. Actually, one other benefit for me with RS I forgot to mention is I never have to pee at night anymore. If I wake up I go right back to sleep.

      I’d be curious if you get the same results with straight potato starch or staight tapioca starch. You might be really sensitive to one or the other. I know cassava is on a very short list of things that give me the runs muy pronto.

    • Wilbur on February 3, 2014 at 12:10

      I had them too. For me, the solution was to move the nighttime dose earlier to an hour or so after dinner. I know it is not on an empty stomach, but it did not notice any reduction in benefits.

    • Mike Ede on February 3, 2014 at 12:18

      What’s the significance of honey?


    • Wilbur on February 3, 2014 at 18:18

      I forgot to mention that my body seems to heat up between 0.5 and 1 degree about 3 to 4 hours after ingesting PS. as I understand, this is about how long it takes to get to the gut. It lasts an hour or so, IIRC. So maybe the fermentation process generates heat. During the day, I do not notice it (but I have verified with a thermometer). When I sleep, however, I am very sensitive to heat, and I’d have to take all the covers and clothing off, only to put it all back on again when it was done. That’s why I moved the time up so that it would finish before I went to bed. As I said, I’ve noticed no lessening of the wonders of RS.

    • Harriet on February 3, 2014 at 19:00

      I have the night sweats issue – now reduced to hot flushes mostly. For 15 odd years the doctors diagnosed it as menopausal symptoms. I discovered it was related to sugar intake. The greater the sugar intake the worse the sweats. But then complicated by the fact that the lower the carb diet (ie no sugar & VLC or quite LC) the more I also get them. For me they can also be associated with adrenaline runs which can be quite unpleasant. Honey at night makes me feel better subjectively but isnt good with the oral thrush which is just waiting for an excuse to break out again. I get them both with and without PS.

    • Thomas on February 4, 2014 at 02:50

      I’ve had the night sweat too for the last few days. Not sure if I can pinpoint what caused it, but it didn’t happen in the first three weeks of doing RS if I recall correctly (this is the 4th or 5th week).

    • BrazilBrad on February 4, 2014 at 05:37

      I have a hard time reading about things like trouble sleeping, changes in body temp, and other things I consider kinda minutia, without coming off sounding like an a-hole. The reason is, I think there is a very simple solution to these issues/problems… Exercise! No, not walking, jogging, or other low intensity stuff. I mean *real* INTENSE exercise in the form of lifting or sprinting. If you do it right you will have no problem sleeping like a rock, and yes, your body temp will likely rise (if you care about such thing, which I don’t). I really feel it’s an error in focus, if not a waist of time, to focus on minutia while omitting something so obvious in benefit as is intense exercise. Get the balance right, I say.

      Granted many people simply are not in the condition to do intense muscular exercise, but everyone CAN, by learning proper technique and ramping up the intensity gradually and safely. Combined with healthy eating the benefits are huge.

    • Ellen on February 5, 2014 at 05:56

      I was going to make the same point as Harriet.

    • Harriet on February 5, 2014 at 00:23

      Sorry BrazilBrad but you can’t generalise from your own experience to everyone. If I do intense exercise once a week that is good for me most of the time (but not all). After three a week I get major infections, my thyroid goes to pot and I end up very unwell.

      Exercise when intense is only OK when your adrenals are functioning well. If they are marginal, as mine are, its something to be managed very cautiously.

      When my adrenals and thyroid stop functioning properly I wake hourly through the night and sleep very lightly. It just isn’t worth doing too much exercise.

      Your last paragraph is good advice to otherwise healthy people, just don’t generalise to all. Learning proper technique counts for nothing if there are adrenal issues. healthy eating helps, but after 5 years of much stricter paleo eating than anyone I know personally I would get intensely annoyed if you judged me for not being able to ramp up intensity gradually. There comes a point where it just doesn’t work.

    • Gemma on February 5, 2014 at 01:20

      And if you do not have the right gut bacteria turning butyrate (emerging from starch metabolisation) into glucose and thus moderating the vagus communication with the brain (glucose level monitoring) then perhaps liver glycogen gets released. Just speculating here…

      More about it here at FTA:
      or here:

    • BrazilBrad on February 5, 2014 at 04:55

      @Harriet, yeah well when I said everyone of course I’m not talking about people who have some physical defect/problem that keeps them from being able to perform as a healthy person should be able to do. Sorry to hear about your health problems. Keep in mind also when I say “intense” I don’t mean lots of cardio exercises, the kind that mostly deplete adrenals. I’m talking about low volume/duration, high muscular activity like sprint intervals (tabatas) and HIT lifting. The latter can be done with as little as 30 minutes of lifting once per week. It’s hard for me to imagine that little volume could have a big negative effect on someone’s health.

      Have you ever tried HIT?

    • Paul on February 5, 2014 at 08:10

      Brad, can’t say I agree with this. I’ve had trouble with sleep and being cold a lot, and I’ve tried all sorts of exercise. No form of exercise has helped either of those.

      Taking PS results in me not feeling cold when it starts to process. PS plus the honey hack has resulted in excellent sleep.

      I’m not saying exercise wouldn’t help some people, but it did nothing for me (and my current form of exercise is HIT).

  26. sione on February 3, 2014 at 12:17

    I’ve been adding potato starch since May. I vary the protocol so that these sensations cannot be due to any other variable. I would say without a doubt that when I add a tablespoon of potato starch to my diet, I experience a sense of being calm, settled, nurtured, satiated; just general wellbeing in my gut. I think that the anecdotes are in and that you really need to expand the vivid dreams aspect into some sort of positive gut-brain pathway. Whether via great dreams or a waking sense of wellbeing, there is definitely a positive feedback loop from the gut to the brain – the gut (or gut microbiome) is clearly asking the brain to keep the potato starch coming.

    Glad to see Duck bring up GAPS. Dr Natasha has a lot of wisdom to share on how our gut health can trigger serious illness. Anyone suffering from gut dysbiosis should try her protocol – Heal and Seal.

    Also – Richard and Tim – if you can spare some time and get your noses out of our guts, there are some fascinating parallels with how the health of the soil biome requires lots of biodiversity of microorganisms; that might make a nice macro analogy for your book.

    • tatertot on February 3, 2014 at 12:52

      We’ve got a soil FREAK on board with us now, I’m sure she’ll want lots of soil talk in the book!

    • Harriet on February 3, 2014 at 19:07

      Yes, I’ve been thinking in terms of improving my garden soil too and wondering what I need to add to improve the local sand.

  27. bornagain on February 3, 2014 at 12:40

    Speaking of #2, do you think Rob Wolf could please provide us with photographic evidence of his better digestion on RS supplementation?

    I’ll believe it when I see it!

  28. mh on February 3, 2014 at 14:44

    I’ve been trying RS for a while now, but simultaneously dropped dairy and started Prescript Assist, so can’t really say what’s what. Gut is definitely way better than 2 months ago, but I have 2 questions. First, I wanted to try getting rid of nightshades for a while due to joint issues. Is continuing with the potato starch an issue as it is a nightshade, or is the fact that it’s resistant mean that it can’t be broken down into potentially irritating chemicals? Secondly, I live in Germany and the organic potato starch I found clearly uses some sort of ‘steam machine’ (direct translation, no idea what it is) process to get rid of the water in the pulp. Does that mean it’s no longer resistant? I have a hard time getting Bob’s over here… it has to be shipped from UK for some exorbitant fee. I’ve done it once, but am looking for alternatives.

    • tatertot on February 3, 2014 at 15:06

      Nightshade problems shouldn’t be bad with potato starch as it seems all the chemicals that could cause problems are washed out, however, if you have serious nightshade intolerance, it is entirely possible you could have problems.

      The local organic starch should be fine. Mix some 50/50 with water, if it stays hard, it’s starch. If it turns to a gooey dough, it’s no good.

      If you have some Bob’s Red Mill, compare how the two react with the same amount of water, know what I mean?

    • mh on February 4, 2014 at 03:10

      Thanks Tatertot.

      I’m out of Bob’s, and there’s now a problem with the supplier to UK, so nobody’s getting it here anytime soon. I wrote yesterday to the producers of the organic PS that I can get here, and amazingly they answered within 12hrs, saying that the potatoes are grated, centrifuged, sieved, and then dried using a temperature of 30 C, and that therefore it is NOT considered modified, but natural, so I think I’m good to go. I’ll try the slurry test too. Next time I’m over the pond, I’ll pick up some Bob’s just to compare.

      The nightshade exclusion is my next attempt to sort out the achy joint thing. I’m seriously hoping it’s a non-issue as I do like my tomatoes and eggplant, not to mention chillies.

    • Michele on February 4, 2014 at 04:33

      Hi mh,

      I live in Germany too. The PS from Bauckhof is the same stuff. I don’t think you can get it in the large quantities like Bob’s but at least you’ll save on shipping if you ca buy it locally….

    • Lucy on February 4, 2014 at 04:50

      The nightshades in PS was a problem for my joint. I can tolerate occasional nightshades, but 4T a day was too much. I can probably use PS only occasionally. I tried TS this morning. I didn’t like the taste. I will have to try to mix it into something else.

    • mh on February 4, 2014 at 16:28

      That’s the company I contacted and whose PS I’m now using, and it’s readily available at most Bio stores. Big relief, as it saves me trying to find a ‘mule’ to bring the stuff over from America 🙂

  29. Ellen on February 4, 2014 at 07:41

    Also want to chime in as another person for whom RS seems to have reduced tarter formation on back of bottom teeth. Still get some, but it is much less and I can easily dislodge it.

  30. TR on February 3, 2014 at 19:47

    It was mentioned that Paul Jaminet had some reservations about RS supplementation. Can you expand upon? Thanks.

  31. the_whizzer on February 4, 2014 at 14:37

    Re UK sources of PS does anyone know if Encona Farina is legit?

    • John Nugent on February 5, 2014 at 00:47

      I just ordered Infinity Foods potato flour (starch) from

      They go to great trouble to explain that while Infinity describe it as flour, that it is actually starch. It looks exactly the same as Bob’s Red Mill starch and has the same effects. Try it.

    • Julie on February 5, 2014 at 06:27

      Don’t know but you can buy Kockens Potatismjol (‘Potato Flour’ but it’s actually potato starch) for £1.30 per 500g from Ocado (Waitrose online) in the UK. I don’t know if the Waitrose bricks-and-mortar shops stock it.

    • the_whizzer on February 5, 2014 at 08:10


    • Art on February 5, 2014 at 09:51

      If online retailers in the UK are struggling to supply Bob’s (or other apparently reputable brands) – as they certainly were around Xmas – you can always try your local oriental store.

      I came up trumps locally: 385g for a quid. Marked ‘Potato Starch/ Potato Flour’. Some Chinese script. Made in Holland.

      It acts – in water, with heat applied, in my belly – and tastes just as Bob’s does. (I’ve used Bob’s before).

    • the_whizzer on February 5, 2014 at 09:55

      Thanks. I do already have some – 5KG of Encona Farina to be precise. I just don’t actually know what makes a brand ‘reputable’.

      BRM is ridiculously pricey in the UK coming from the few (Amazon and another) people who sell it. I just want to know if Encona Farina is ‘right’.

      What process do pototoes have to undergo to produce the right kind of PS?

    • Art on February 5, 2014 at 10:07

      Frankly, if it’s sold for human consumption, you’re pretty much guaranteed it’s fine imo

      I’ve happened upon the Farina stuff before and I thought it looked absolutely ok.

      The cheap and cheerful stuff I’ve bought – with a tiny label and want of fancy packaging – looks like a bag of cocaine. Would that it were..

      Some quick tests will tell you it’s starch not flour: put it in a glass of water and it sinks; heat it in the microwave with some water and it forms a weird solid; stick it in you gob and throw some water in and, as if by magic , it sorta disapppears.

    • the_whizzer on February 5, 2014 at 10:09

      It’s certainly potato starch and it is lablled as such, I just wasn’t sure if we were talking about a certain type of potato starch (ie production process) or just ALL potato starch.

    • Art on February 5, 2014 at 10:18

      My understanding: the process of making potato starch involves the absence of meaningful heating. If the stuff has endured meaningful heating in the process it’s no longer potato starch but something else.

      All potato starch, sold as such and for human consumption, should fit the bill.

    • Mike Ede on February 6, 2014 at 02:11

      Have used Encona Farina and it was fine, same with tropical sun (although it comes with a slightly scary don’t eat raw warning).
      I also get BRM shipped in from the states from iHerb
      Failing that if you know / live near one of the decent food ingredients suppliers then you could get 25kg for a very reasonable price

  32. kayumochi on February 4, 2014 at 07:46

    As much as I benefit from my daily PS I realize as I read through these comments that I am witnessing the emergence of a new food cult.

    • tatertot on February 4, 2014 at 07:58

      Kayumochi – Au Contraire!

      What you are witnessing is the growing realization that we need to take into consideration not just our wallet and our desire for tasty, nutritious food, but also the care and feeding of our trillions of gut microbes.

      They have been neglected for too long and this little potato starch experiment is showing what can happen when they are given a bit of love!

      Prebiotics and probiotics can be tools in any food cult, that doesn’t make them a cult of their own. There is nothing inherently special about potato starch other than it being a concentrated, easily-dosed source of prebiotics. People are also starting to see that prebiotics alone may not be the answer and we also need to think about introducing new players into the ballet that is going on inside us.

      Going straight for the potato starch is probably just human nature, but beyond that, is a whole new way of eating that involves preparing foods high in RS, eating minimally washed veggies, fermented foods, and learning about what’s inside you with tools like the American Gut project or more advanced test methods to look for parasites as well.

      No, I don’t see this as a cult at all, I see this as mounting evidence that all the other cults missed something.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 08:36

      That’s right. And when the time is just right, I’ll be asking people to take their PS in “Very Special” Kool-Aid.

    • kate on February 4, 2014 at 08:57

      Well said, Tatertot!

    • Gemma on February 4, 2014 at 09:13


      Haha, Valentine’s Day is coming, let’s show some love to our microfriends! Send them some starch laced cards!

    • tatertot on February 4, 2014 at 09:21

      Ha Ha – I remember as kid in 2nd grade, I was the one getting in trouble for eating the paste…my how we’ve come full circle. Sorry Mrs. Zachrich (rip) but I’m going to go ahead and eat this paste.

    • jgibson on February 5, 2014 at 04:27

      Future headline: “The Cult of the Hairy Potato, or how two men used the internet to perpetrate a worldwide fart joke.” You know it’s coming.

    • Charlie on February 5, 2014 at 08:37

      Is RS/PS a precursor to mixed metaphors.

      “…introducing new players into the ballet…”


  33. BrazilBrad on February 4, 2014 at 09:03

    @Richard, does that Kool-Aid go by the name of Horchata or Tigernut-Milk per chance? 😉

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 09:39

      BB, can you try to use the Reply link in order to keep threads nested?

      Anyway, what’s important is that the Kool-Aid be laced with something the gut biome can’t detoxify, since we are talking cult & all. 🙂

  34. unmeinohi on February 4, 2014 at 09:34

    Has anyone experienced profound water weight gain with PS supplementation?

    I wasn’t VLC or even LC before starting PS. More like PHD, I usually have a serving of potatoes, white rice, glass noodles, or (more rarely) beans every day, typically partitioned into the dinner meal. It’s only been three weeks of experimenting with a max of 2 T / day. I’ve had it on an empty stomach mixed with water, mixed with coconut yogurt, dairy yorgurt, kefir, and mixed with cooked and cooled mashed potatoes. I’ve tried it both in the morning and night. Some of the variants caused more or less gas. But generally they all make me gain a tremendous amount of water, unless I reduced PS intake to about 1/2 T a day.

    2 T / day is enough that it makes sleep poorly. Without PS, I sleep uninterrupted throughout the night. Now, I usually get up around the 6 hr mark because I’m so thirsty and my stomach hurts because whatever is happening in there demands more water to continue functioning. If I slam water before bed like 2 drinking cups worth (maybe 30 oz) I can usually make it to 8 hrs. I still wake up feeling like I’m dehydrated and must immediately pursue hydration.
    I haven’t quantified the amount of water weight on a scale. But it feels like the day before my period all the time. TMI: My boobs hurt. There’s so much water in them.

    I’m also getting chest acne, which doesn’t make any sense either.
    I’m committed to trying to make PS supplementation work for me. Because the science makes a lot of sense, and I was in ketosis for almost all of 2012. So I’m sure I screwed up my gut flora royally, and applying some selective pressure on my gut flora for the right kind of bacteria makes sense to me.
    I’ve dropped all dairy but butter and been prioritizing drinking water.


    • Ellen on February 4, 2014 at 15:37

      I am betting you are correct that the year of ketosis messed up your gut flora. It only took a few weeks of drastic reduction in vegetables diet for Jeff leach to see a dramatic change in his gut flora.

    • tatertot on February 4, 2014 at 09:49

      HEY! That’s not a benefit..get out of here!

      Just kidding. I haven’t heard this one before..anyone else?

      This may be a case of what Dr. BG (Grace) always warns us about–people going straight for the potato starch because it’s easy and then giving up because it didn’t work for them.

      You may want to try getting some good probiotics in ya, like the soil-based ones we talk about and also just some generic lacto/bifido strains. Garden of Life Primal Flora, Prescript Assist, or AOR Probiotic-3 are all good ones to try.

      That would be my recommendation for you, too. Cut way back on the starch, start eating fermented foods, takle some probiotics, then up the starch and also start eating RS rich foods. Folks like you should really take note because I think you are seeing the effects of poor microbe populations.

      Good luck!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 10:44

      Exactly what I was going to say.

      While I don’t have any issues, just for the fun of it I’m taking all three of the probiotic products Tim mentions, all at once, just so I can have as many confounders as possible. Oh, and taking with RS in kefir, raw milk, a little fruit juice, a raw egg and a green banana in a smoothie.

      That way, I’ll never be able to tell what did what and I’ll have to just keep experimenting. 🙂

      Probably placebo effect but since I began yesterday morning I have the most calm and stable mood I can ever recall having. It’s like a nuke could go off nearby and I’d say, “huh, look at that.”

    • unmeinohi on February 4, 2014 at 11:53

      Thanks for the response.
      I just placed my order for Garden of Life probiotics. I guess it can’t hurt to try.

      Upon starting PS supplementation, I was hoping that I wasn’t just feeding “empty cages.” I live on a hobby farm, haven’t taken antibiotics in years (20+), eat vegetables straight from the garden, lots of farm animals and pets around, and eat lots of homemade sauerkraut, kefir, and yogurt. I was hoping that there were various soil-based bacteria present in my gut, but comprised a small minority because of my time in ketosis and the PS would just give them a population boost.
      I’ll check back in in a month or so with updates.

    • BethM on February 5, 2014 at 09:16

      It sounds like you started with too much, too soon. When I started with too much, I also had poor sleep. I had to start slow – 1 tsp. morning and night for a few days, then 1 1/2 tsps for a few more days, etc. Eventually I was able to work up to 4 Tbsp. a day, but it took a couple of weeks. As I got into the Tbsp. range, I was able to increase more quickly.

    • BethM on February 5, 2014 at 09:22

      I forgot to mention, yes, the chest acne does make sense. When I started with PS, I got headaches. There’s some detox going on. You’re feeding the good critters and they start growing and cleaning out some of the bad critters. It didn’t last long for me. Going slowly with increasing the amount should help w/that, too.

    • greenie on March 24, 2014 at 09:15

      Any updates for us?

      I went keto for a year (on for 3-4 months at a time) and am having bloating issues also. I take prescript assist though and also eat homemade fermented veggies. Other probiotics being shipped my way.
      Hope things are looking up for you.

  35. Yeastie on February 4, 2014 at 09:39

    Has anyone had an outbreak of yeast after starting PS? After about 4 weeks of taking 4T a day, I had a huge rash on my butt which itched like crazy. I am prone to small, skin yeast infections when I eat too many carbs, especially chocolate, wine and sweets, but I’ve never experienced anything like this last assault. Fortunately, it cleared up after about 5 days. So I’m guessing that PS not only feeds our bacteria, it also feeds yeast. Any thoughts?

    • tatertot on February 4, 2014 at 09:58

      Funny you mention yeast. A very smart, up-and-coming author, who shall remain nameless (tatertot, coff,coff), just wrote this last night:

      “Very little is actually known about Saccharomyces boulardii, but it is widely accepted as a “probiotic,” and is known for it’s ability to survive stomach acid and fights off disease-causing organisms in the gut such as pathogenic bacteria and yeast. It doesn’t appear that Saccharomyces boulardii is available in “real-food” format and must be supplemented. It was originally derived in 1923 from the skin of the mangosteen fruit after scientists saw the fruit being used to treat cholera. Saccharomyces boulardii is now cultivated in laboratories and freeze-dried for use in probiotic supplements. The only warning is that it should not be used by immunocompromised people as it has been seen to cause fungal infections.”

      Take that for what it’s worth, but it seems to parallel your story. I don’t believe RS has been shown to ‘feed’ yeast, but it may be making an environment where yeast can thrive. How that translates to yeast on butt, I don’t know.

      I’d have to give you the same advice as the last person to take ample probiotics. The soil-based organisms do seem to have the potential to bust biofilms and clear yeast overgrowths, so give it a shot!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 10:54

      “A very smart, up-and-coming author, who shall remain nameless (tatertot, coff,coff), just wrote this last night:”

      Yea, well just wait until it falls under my editing screen. 🙂

    • DuckDodgers on February 4, 2014 at 11:26

      I wouldn’t demonize all carbs. Sugar and yeasty carbs are definitely a culprit. But, as someone who has overcome yeast/Candida successfully, using RS, I can tell you that it’s not as simple as you might think it is. Candida and yeasts become benign in acidic environments and pathogenic in alkaline environments.

      While even mainstreamers know this, they tend to come to the wrong conclusions based on this important knowledge. Mainstream ideology is to cut out all carbs, including fermentable carbs and try to create acidic conditions with probiotics. Unfortunately, all that does cut out the food that your microbiota needs to create acidic conditions (from SCFA butyrate production) and sends you into ketosis. Why is ketosis bad for someone with a yeast/candida problem?

      Yeast and Candida are eukaryotes, and eukaryotes have mitochondria that will adapt to ketones as a primary fuel source over time.

      <From Paul Jaminet:

      Low-carb diets generally improve immunity to bacteria and viruses, but not all is roses and gingerbread.

      Low-carb diets, alas, impair immunity to fungal and protozoal infections. The immune defense against these infections is glucose-dependent (as it relies on production of reactive oxygen species using glucose) and thyroid hormone-dependent (as thyroid hormone drives not only glucose availability, but also the availability of iodine for the myeloperoxidase pathway). Thus, anti-fungal immunity is downregulated on very low-carb diets.

      Moreover, eukaryotic pathogens such as fungi and protozoa can metabolize ketones. Thus, a ketogenic diet promotes growth and systemic invasion of these pathogens.

      As the fungal infection case studies on our “Results” page illustrate, low-carb dieters often develop fungal infections, and these often go away with increased starch consumption.

      Another issue is that mucus is essential for immunity at epithelial surfaces, and glycosylation is essential for the integrity of cellular junctions and tissue barriers such as the intestinal and blood-brain barriers. Thus, reduced production of mucus can impair intestinal immunity and promote gut dysbiosis or systemic infection by pathogens that enter through the gut.

      Finally, a very low-carb diet is not entirely free of risks of gut dysbiosis, and not just from fungal infections. Bacteria can metabolize the amino acid glutamine as well as mucosal sugars, so it is not possible to completely starve gut bacteria with a low-carb diet. Nor is it desirable, as this would eliminate a protective layer against systemic infection by pathogens that enter the body through the gut. As our “Results” page shows, several people who had gut trouble on the very low-carb (and generally excellent) GAPS diet were cured on our diet.

      So, if you are very low carb and have yeast issues, it’s probably not the Potato Starch that’s causing the problem. As Paul Jaminet has demonstrated with The Perfect Health diet, one can eat significant quantities of potatoes and their fermentable substrates (RS) every day and cure their fungal infections.

      Once you begin to see how “safe starches,” fermentation and SCFA production is protective against fungal infections, it becomes a lot easier to switch yeasts and Candida to a benign form using fermentable complex carbs and PS supplementation. Again, from personal experience, it worked wonders for me. I recommend starting with the PHD and working up PS over time.

    • kate on February 4, 2014 at 14:54

      Yeastie, I’m curious did you confirm the rash was a yeast infection? Did a topical anti fungal cream relieve the itch? I had a rash recently, which lasted a little under a week. It came up suddenly, and was very ichy for a few days. My first thought was jock itch, even though it is in the middle of winter. However, when the itch clearly didn’t budge upon application of various anti fungals like lamasil I decided it was something else. I changed my theory to poison ivy, although again unlikely in the winter. Now I’m wondering. Maybe some sort of herxheimer reaction. Proliferation of bacteria in the gut killing off some gram negatives? Just a thought.

    • Yeastie on February 4, 2014 at 16:13

      No, I didn’t see a doctor about it because I have had several of them over the past 3 years. They always respond well to anti-fungal medications. I use clotrimazole although all the “azoles” can be tried. Yeast infections come on very suddenly and itch like hell. There are also little sores/blisters that are painful to the touch. I don’t know much about poison ivy or herxheimer reaction so I can’t help you there. Jock itch could well be yeast.

    • Ken on February 5, 2014 at 04:58

      I was diagnosed with Candida in 2007. I’ve gotten markedly better through diet and lifestyle interventions but my constant need to tweak things led me to a ketogenic diet this fall. I did not thrive on it. Went off of it in early winter. Did the Whole 30 in January just to hit the reset button. I drank some (a lot) of red wine a couple of weeks ago and had a full blown yeast blow out. Now I finally understand that the yeast were not being driven out as I had thought but were hunkering down, getting stronger and waiting to come back. LC Paleo just didn’t work for me with my specific issue.

      I’ve been doing Prescript Assist for a while now but can’t get it to take hold. I’m now dosing myself with the PS that I have only been tinkering with so far. I have two other probiotics mentioned above on order and will be downing those with PS as well.

      This thread has been incredibly helpful for me.

    • BethM on February 5, 2014 at 09:30

      Interesting info about saccharomyces boulardii, TT. I can definitely vouch that it fights off yeast. It’s been a miracle worker for me in my battle against candida overgrowth; symptoms are greatly reduced when supplementing with SB. Odd that it would cause fungal infections in immunocompromised people though

    • J. on February 7, 2014 at 22:27

      Check out a drug called Lufenuron, it is the holy grail to killing fungal infections.

    • Scowl on August 3, 2014 at 14:35


      I’ve noticed your comments around multiple forums, in which you continue to give out straight forward, solid information. I’ve been working relentlessly on my own gut rehab via PHD ~ RS ~ tweaking around the 7 steps for SIBO, but can’t find the right combo. Every time I “go in’ on the body with starch & RS fungal overdrive is in full effect (systemic on the various areas of the skin). Did you find any specific starches in PHD that have the best healing components while minimizing yeast impact, alongside the RS/PS (or is it all relative)?…..and did you solely go with PS for your RS, or mix in RS foods and/or green banana flour? I want the combo to work well, but always seem to feed yeast/pathogens with increase in starch. I noticed a few places mention PS has the possibility to feed yeast, but perhaps (as you mentioned) if the right co-factors of the PHD are in place one can get around it. If you’re open to exchanging a few e-mail’s please drop me a line.

      Nikoley…..great blog, great content, enjoy the keep it real attitude. My initial round of PS was rough, went in full force at 4tbsp a day without probiotics to initially try and feed bifido. I pulled back and have been seeding with SBO’s, the journey continues.

    • Duck Dodgers on August 3, 2014 at 17:28


      In all my research, I believe normalizing the pH of your GIT (gastro-intestinal tract) through fermentation is one of the most powerful weapons people have going for them. Once you start producing enough SCFAs, the pH in the gut should normalize and those SCFAs and other metabolites from the fibers should inhibit or kill pathogens like candida.

      I can’t stress that enough.

      However, if pathogens like candida are living under a thick biofilm, they may not be affected by the generated SCFAs and normalized pH.

      For me, I started with 2 teaspoons of RS and slowly re-introduced carbs. I worked up slowly over many weeks. But, I used a biofilm disruptor too. If you want to learn more about using a biofilm disruptor in conjunction with fibers, like RS, read this:

      Keep in mind that RS is not the only way to normalize gut pH and switch on fermentation. Really any other fiber would work. The only difference is that you may need more quantity of alternative fibers to have the same effect.

      For instance, Eddie was unable to tolerate RS but he was able to normalize his flora, his gut pH and SCFA production with tons of Inulin. I believe others have had good success with Larch AG (LAG), which helps stimulate the immune system.

      The point is that RS isn’t mandatory. But, I think switching on fermentation is mandatory though. RS is just the easiest/cheapest way to do it.

      Another fiber worth exploring, in addition to Inulin, might be Acacia Senegal (see “Heather’s Tummy Fiber”). It seems to be very gentle and has some anti-pathogenic properties. But, just keep in mind that a biofilm disruptor tends to be a very important part of any anti-candida protocol.

    • Duck Dodgers on August 3, 2014 at 17:38

      …And if you need more ideas for alternative fibers, consider some of the fibers that Wilbur used:

      …flaxseed, inulin, FOS, baobab, larch arabinogalactan, beta glucan, chitosan, amla, yacon root powder, glucomannan, psyllium (I poo poo’ed this in the past, but reconsidered my stance), guar gum, and a bunch I’d have to write down. Plus some I take occasionally, like wheat grass and hemp seed powder. Every fiber I take has a story, and I favor the ones that seem most beneficial to me. But the goal is always to improve my gut.

      That and I eat lots of veggies. As many as I can. Green stuff, beets, parsnips, green beans, and tons of green onions. At least 3 cloves of raw garlic per day. Beans, lentils, etc. I make barley risotto every Thursday to eat with a fresh fish shipment at the farmers market, and this lasts for several days. Lately I have been eating lots and lots of berries because they are showing up at the markets.

      Over time, I would expect RS to become tolerable, once the gut is normalized and pathogens are inactivated. Though, that could take awhile.

    • Scowl on August 4, 2014 at 01:03

      Thanks Duck…..

      I’m in agreement with the suggestions you mention as I’ve recently ordered Acacia Senegal and have been incorporating biofilm disrupters into my regimen via EDTA based enzymes, NAC and clay. I also get as much inulin into the diet as possible, but can be tough to find the right balance as well….per many of the options in the case of fixing the overall dysbiosis, (I’ve read all of Gestalts post’s as well, thx for passing on the link).

      I asked about your PHD implementation because I’m wondering if being under 150g of safe starches and continuously doing the “dance” of putting in starch/pulling back starch is just resulting in stalemate. Ideally would like to be rocking 150g of safe starch daily, but when safe starch or RS is increased yeast rolls right alongside with it. Assessing out how I could get the yeast balanced by keeping a daily starch minimum, otherwise it’s just hanging out with the pathogenic homies, potentially eating away at the mucosal lining. Your success posed the question that perhaps a certain minimum of starch is needed alongside implementation of RS and SBO’s. For instance could one be taking RS to no avail because their “safe starch” consumption is still slightly too low?….and/or is it the need to continue to weed out the pathogens and increase SBO’S. Trying to find that sweet spot and the right co-factors in the diet.

      I rocked super green banana’s over the past four days and felt the immediate effects of butyrate being produced (stimulating the brain, increased energy) but yeast kicked right on in, pulled it back today……and the dance continues!

    • Duck Dodgers on August 4, 2014 at 08:56

      I think you need to listen your body. I see no point in doing the “dance” if it makes you feel bad. And I see no point in forcing PHD levels until your body is ready for it.

      Initially when I started the PHD, I was just trying to eyeball my starches and later discovered that I was accidentally only consuming about 50g-100g of carbs per day. I had no idea that I needed to double my carb intake to hit PHD-levels. So, I never went straight to 150g of carbs of safe starches. I built up very gradually.

      It wasn’t until I was a month or two into bio-film disruption that I finally realized the error and upped my intake to PHD-levels of starch. My supplemental RS intake was only about 1 to 2 Tablespoons per day at that time — up from just 1 teaspoon at the very beginning. And it took about 6 months before I felt comfortable getting up to 4 Tbsp per day. So, without realizing it, I did everything very slowly.

      But, my experience sounds a bit different than yours, as I never had any major issues consuming any kinds of starch. So, again, I think you probably just need to listen to your body and focus on supporting broad fermentation, and not focus so much about RS per se. Again, the only reason why RS is focussed on is because it’s cheap and easy for producing butyrate. The other SCFAs will have similar effects on inactivating candida.

      Carbs don’t need to come from just starches. While many people find that fructose ignites candida, it’s entirely possible that getting some carbs from fruit may work better for you. Again, you would need to listen to your body. I was able to tolerate a banana a day no problem. The PHD recommends some of the carbs coming from fructose anyway.

      For kicks, you could also try over-chewing some of your starches (i.e. letting them disintegrate completely in your mouth, without swallowing) to see if the glucose absorbed sublingually has the same effect as the glucose consumed through your GIT. It’s not the ideal way to consume glucose every day long term, since glucose is best consumed slowly as part of a meal, but it would be interesting to see if you notice a difference or not. In theory, your body should be able to absorb its glucose before candida does, but it’s a sneaky beast and depending on the level of infiltration, it has its ways to hijack the system. You could eat some of your carbs as tapioca syrup to get some glycemic carbs right into the body and just eat other fibers throughout the day and probably get close to the same end-result. Glycemic carbs help the body manufacture glycans, like Mucin-2. Fibers feed the gut flora to manufacture the chemicals we need to function and stabilize the GIT environment. But, how you get to that ideal level of carbs/fiber can be custom tailored in many ways.

      So, avoid the dance if you can. Build up slowly and figure out what works!

      (* None of this should be construed as medical advice. Proceed at your own risk.)

    • Scowl on August 5, 2014 at 00:43

      Great info Duck…..

      In regards to biofilm, various research suggests that minerals may be able to make bio-film stronger. This has been something I’ve evaluated in the healing process because taking a high quality mineral complex has been beneficial when in a fatigued, compromised state due to the overall dysbiosis. It seems to help support taxed adrenals, which in turn can help alleviate yeast burdens if the fatigue is strong. I did one month of bio-film disruptors pulling back on minerals and decided to bring them back in. However, the question remains on whether or not having minerals involved during the bio-film process has an effect on the eradication. Curious to know your take on that?

      Appreciate the thoughts on carb intake, this is something I’ve been evaluating in regards to fructose. I haven’t touched it in a long time and it might be a beneficial way to get some form of carbs in the mix while slowly bringing in starch. Any extra input on why tapioca syrup might be a good place to start? Your suggestion is right on point with what I’ve been looking into….been considering doing a similar routine with dextrose.

      “Glycemic carbs help the body manufacture glycans, like Mucin-2″…….this is what I was getting at in terms of evaluating glucose/fructose intake and the balancing act. I’ve never been big on counting exact amounts of carb intake, weighing food, etc. However, let’s say you’re getting in ~ 75g of safe starches and yeast is “at bay” (congruently resulting in a lack of glucose reserves/compromised immune), but when you increase and diversify intake yeast goes into overdrive, resulting in pulling back. I’m wondering if going straight to 150g and sticking will eventually offset the yeast alongside various forms of RS or just PS. I assume this depends on the state of dysbiosis and pathogenic overgrowth contributing to the overall imbalance. Similar to taking scoops of PS and everything that’s been discovered here over recent months, one must evaluate uptake of SBO’s/organ support/antimicrobials/diet, and if severely compromised move slowly (as you suggested).

      *Did you go with any fermented foods during your re-build?…..or wait until you felt completely balanced?

    • Duck Dodgers on August 5, 2014 at 06:40

      I never paid much attention to minerals. For instance, calcium is expected to promote biofilms. But, I found drinking raw milk to be helpful (made me feel good). I believe raw milk has compounds that supposedly break down biofilms. Seems like the disruptors won out in my case.

      Yes. Fermented foods are pretty key: Kimchee, sauerkraut, etc. Eat ’em up every day if you can.

      As for fructose, here’s what the Jaminets say:

      Paul Jaminet said:

      A little bit of honey or sweet syrups is OK. I think you’ll find that on low-carb diets without added sugar, your tastes change and very little honey is needed to make foods taste appealingly sweet. If you weighed the honey and calculated how many calories it had, you’d find it was very small. One teaspoon of honey weighs about 6 grams and has about 18 calories, about 9 calories of fructose or 0.4% of daily energy intake. That’s not going to kill you. We recommend getting about 100 calories of fructose daily from all sources, including fruit.

      Fruit and berries are excellent foods and not to be avoided. We recommend eating 2-3 pieces of fruit or servings of berries daily.

      The tapioca syrup is just a safe starch sweetener. It’s absorbed into the body rapidly, and should bypass directly feeding yeasts/candida and is really nothing more than an interesting experiment. I only tried it a few times, wasn’t all that impressed and it doesn’t even taste very sweet.

      Anyway, lots of ways to get carbs and fiber in your body. But I wouldn’t recommend forcing your body to consume all your carbs as starch if it’s pushing back. Try mixing up your carbs and maybe target 75-100g of carbs for a few weeks first.

    • Duck Dodgers on August 5, 2014 at 06:45

      …Or, for fun, try swallowing 75g-100g of carbs and over-chewing/sublingual for the remainder of your desired carb target (letting the carbs disintegrate in your mouth).

      It’s worth trying for a day or two to see if it makes any difference. No promises and probably not something I would do long term.

    • Kyle on August 5, 2014 at 18:21


      Biofilm Disruptor

      Probably one of the best biofilm disruptor’s you’ll ever find is cayenne pepper. The capsaicin in cayenne is antifungal, but I think that it’s effectiveness is just as much related to it’s ability to induce mucus production. Although the first of the following links mentions 3 tablespoons in a day, I never got to that amount, only 1 teaspoon in 1 to 1-1/2 oz’s. of water. Now for the TMI…I discovered it’s effectiveness while taking coffee enemas for a liver condition at the time. Coffee enemas make for a fairly liquid stool. After about 5 to 7 days I filled the toilet bowl with tubes of polysaccharide about the size of the small intestine and 10-12 inches in length. Also, many about the size of the bile ducts. Wall thickness was about as thick as the wall of an earthworm split open. Should anyone doubt this, I have samples I’d taken that are now sitting in a sealed jar under methyl alcohol. I couldn’t believe it myself. At the time I was having severe difficulty digesting and absorbing food (partly pancreatic problems). Afterwards I felt much better ‘nourished’.

      I personally think that the amount of mucus production cayenne causes simply blows the biofilm off the intestinal wall.


      You might want to follow out the link from the wiki link on substance P, which has been studied as very effective against diabetes.

      Also, one of the best iron binders is sodium citrate. Simple citric acid and sodium bicarb (found at cheese maker’s supply shops). And it does it while releasing very little oxygen radical, which is a serious problem with acetates and ascorbates.

      And just remember…you heard it here first.


    • Scowl on August 9, 2014 at 16:05

      Thanks for the feedback Duck.

      I’ve been considering upping the fructose intake, but these damn “anti-diets” gave me the “fructose phobia” for awhile, and it seems to have same effect as glucose. As discussed, it seems a prudent method is to go slow and tweak all the elements being touted on the 7 steps…. ~ S ~ RS ~ Fermented foods ~ SBO’s ~ Anti-microbials ~ Organ support alongside considering biofilm distruptors.

      Due to the systemic nature, I’m also incorporating whatever I can at the mucosal lining…..bone broth, glutamine, gelatin, etc.

      It’s def frustrating because the starch & RS currently have beneficial effects on the body and brain, but come with increased yeast. My feeling is that it’s feeding and balancing the good bacteria that I’m seeding via SBO’s, but congruently feeding yeast overgrowth. Thus, the body is starting to “wake back up” with more of these foods (whether it be in form of glucose or fructose), but I have a clear barometer in the skin hitting back at me. So, I’m feeding something well and getting beneficial effects in the gut-brain-hormonal axis, but getting rocked on the gut-skin-axis. The increase in fungal growth on the skin is obviously not cool, but pulling back and going LC seems to be a stalemate bust that doesn’t feed the bacteria. Thus the conundrum. Continue tweaking and let fungal ride the wave on my skin until things hopefully even out?

      This is where it looks like you found your own personal groove with the correct amount of starch combined with the correct prebiotic in the form of RS. The roll out of bio-film disruptors in congruence with RS, followed by a slow introduction of S. All this said, do you still support the following theory you posted in Feb….

      “No. I can tell you with confidence that PS does not feed candida, so long as you are eating PHD-level starches. Candida have mitochondria, therefore after a few months of low carbing they can readily adapt to absorbing ketones as a prime fuel source. They create biofilms and hunker down while they figure out how to adapt”.

      Sorry for the redundance, but this supports the thought that getting in the correct amount of starch may in fact be the key to making RS work (in a severely compromised gut). Just like you mentioned, I’ve always eyeballed my starch as I increase it and perhaps the the low amount is giving the yeast a lightweight feed (inducing overdrive on the skin), but allowing alkalinity to still be in place. A few months back when I dropped the throttle on PS at 4tbsp out the gates and increased S, it crushed me….body was clearly not ready and I stayed the course for a month to see if things would even out…..too much, too fast. This is where the 7 steps is interesting because they clearly help with bacterial balance, but don’t have a definitive focus on how yeast may play out in the journey (unless I’m missing it), and really how could it….yeast is definitely a sneaky beast and each person will have their own journey. And then there’s always the question when feeling digestive effects….is it yeast, is it bacteria, is it a small alien???

      This is another good link from the gestalt blog regarding the skin axis:

      Just got my Acai Senegal in the mail. Did you ever incorporate that in your mix? Any particular bio-fill disruptors you like? Thx

    • Sarah on November 2, 2014 at 18:22

      It’s probably a die-off reaction. Check out the book Gut and Psychology Syndrome.

  36. Yeastie on February 4, 2014 at 11:05

    Thanks, nameless up-and-coming author! (I just now noticed earlier comments re yeast, too.)

    My experience re the top 3:

    blood sugar: fasting has gone up by 5-10 mg/dL but P.S. definitely blunts my post-prandial readings
    vivid dreams: yes, but I had them before P.S. too
    TMI: no noticeable difference

  37. jonah88 on February 4, 2014 at 11:20

    I’ve been a reader of the site for quite a while, but thought I’d chime in with my results because of the variety of the test subjects.

    Myself: 43yr old male, paleo for the last 2 years. I started a 2tbsp/day and bumped it up to 4 within a week. No discomfort & not too much gas, but it worked a little too well at moving things through the colon. I was going 4 or 5 times a day and constantly felt like I had to go throughout the day. Dreams were intense enough to almost be too distracting to sleep- I kept waking up throughout the night. I stopped for a week and restarted with 1 tbsp per day. Noticed that it seemed to improved calm & suppress appetite if taken in the morning. Bumped up to 2 tbsp per day after a week and the poop issues started in again, although not as bad as before. I ran through this routine again with the same results- 1 tbsp per day for a week and then increasing to 2. Not sure if I’m already getting enough RS, but I eat black beans daily and potatoes and/or bananas a few times a week. Might try tapioca starch next.

    Wife: 44 yrs old- non-paleo diet, but pretty healthy. Has had trouble sleeping through the night for the last couple years. Usually ends up on the couch watching TV at about 3:30am. Been taking 1-2tbsp for the last week and sleep has improved noticeably. Mood seems a little better too (although I’m not going to tell her that:)- not sure if that’s from PS or improved sleep.

    Son: 18 yrs old- severely autistic, lots of dairy & gluten in his diet. Gut & leaky gut problems (among other physical problems) have always been issues common with autistic kids, but we’ve been lucky to have an autistic son who’s only issues are mental. But he is a restless sleeper , usually constipated, and has anxiety issues that can lead to violent meltdowns, so I though what the hell and started him on 1-2 tbsp nightly a couple weeks ago. Sleep improved immediately as far as I can tell. I haven’t gotten a “look” yet to see if constipation has been affected. Behavior issues (meltdowns) happen around once a month, so we’ll see if that is affected, but he does seem to be more calm. I plan to start him (and myself) on soil based probiotics next month.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 23:29


      You probably look around a lot about this kind of thing. My first take upon reading is that you and your wife have an enormous confounder that can’t compare to most people’s experience. Living with sever autism for 18 years, and I’m sure you downplay the burden.

      I can’t even imagine.

      I am seeing more and more articles lately about a connection to autism and gut biome. Make sure to check out AnimalPharm about particular probiotics.

    • J. on February 7, 2014 at 22:35

      If you’re keen, look in to a drug called Lufenuron as your next biohack/self experiment, a drug that is particularly useful in killing fungi with absolutely no downsides apart from the die off.

  38. Yeastie on February 4, 2014 at 14:42

    Thanks for your informative response, DuckDodgers. I didn’t know any of this. But I did suspect that my 2 years of low carb eating had made me much more susceptible to yeast infections; I just didn’t understand why. Now I do. I’d always (mistakenly) assumed I had a healthy gut, primarily because I almost never get sick but also because I have always been a big vegetable eater. I’ve slowly added back potatoes, rice and beans and now I can resume taking my P.S.! Thanks again.

  39. Ellen on February 5, 2014 at 05:52

    I disagree, Richard. While I appreciate your humor, I think it is within the realm of possibility that sudden onset of puffy eyes only when consuming the PS could be indicative of something gone amiss. What that would be I have no idea. Maybe it is meaningless, But do you know that for certain? Let’s try to keep our minds as well as our bowels open..

    I think that an important part of what we are doing here is to use our experiments with RS not only to heal but to help diagnose those under the radar type of malfunctions that can be silently undermining your health .

    There! Did I sound righteous, but polite?

  40. Ralnac on February 4, 2014 at 15:08

    I am gratified to learn about resistant starch which vindicates my mom instinct.

    The last few months I often send my teenage daughter to school with a thermos of beans and rice with ghee for lunch. I usually cook up a batch then portion it into containers, freeze or refrigerate, then heat one up before school.

    I observed a huge difference in her mood and level of irritability if she eats rice n beans (boring/starchy=happy) versus school food ( pizza=grouchy).

    I think both of us are dealing with histamine overload/intolerance. I get headaches and flushed/itchy skin and tinnitus. She gets eczema flares and irritable mood and mouth itching from foods. Tomato and citrus are particularly problematic. A few weeks ago I reacted horribly to swiss chard (high oxalate–histamine liberator).

    S Boulardii has a reputation as a mast cell stabilizer, as does quercetin, and I think bentonite clay is another handy tool. We both started a probiotic HLC –human lactic commensals, which are human strains of l acidophilus and bifido bacteria.)

    I just got some potato starch to try out. Interested to see where this goes.

  41. Taggart on February 4, 2014 at 15:11

    My report so far (40yr old male , on 4tbsp/day PS for 4 months, with no prior health problems other than very minor psoriasis and acne which I was hoping to tackle with the help of RS)

    -Improved sleep (has made waking up easier than any time I can remember in my life)
    -Decreased appetite
    -Seems to help stabilize weight (scale stayed the same despite typical holiday binge eating)
    -Increase in body temperature

    -Fartage (both quantity and smell have been unreal)
    -Less Regular Bathroom habits (possibly due to reduced appetite and food intake)
    -Rather persistent bloated feeling

    Mostly positive effects on mood, largely increased sense of calm. Though, I have experienced a lot more volatility in my mood than at any point in my life. From moments where I have uncontrollable laughter for little or no reason to “seeing red” rage. To be clear, these are infrequent and do not occur from one extreme to the other. I have always been a very even keeled individual and I have had more of these “extreme” episodes in the last 4 months than I have had in the last 5 years.

    Recently, out of nowhere, I developed a pretty serious ache in both my left hip and left knee. No recent or historical trauma to these areas ever. As I began to look into a possible Nightshade connection, I discovered blood in my stool for the first time in my life. I decided to go off the PS immediately at that point. It has been about two weeks and the joint aches are still present and I had one more bloody stool several days after the first (with NO signs of intestinal discomfort at all). I do not take any other supplements or prescriptions and have not changed my diet at all. Not sure if these symptoms are related and am willing to try RS again, but am uncertain as to what the best course of action may be. I’ve been thinking about trying Plantain or Tapioca flour to avoid any Nightshade issue. I’ve never been aware of a problem with Nightshades before.

    • gabriella kadar on February 4, 2014 at 15:56

      Taggart, if you are 100% positive that the blood is not from a hemorrhoid, go to the doctor. In Canada they are doing colonoscopies from age 50, but I have a patient whose doctor kept putting him off from age 43 that, nah, it’s a hemorrhoid. He’s now 48 years old with stage 4 colorectal cancer. He’s got metastases in his liver and he’ll need to have his entire rectum removed and endure life with a colostomy bag. 🙁 Really horrific, if he survives, which he realizes is unlikely. Chemo has not done a thing. I haven’t spoken to him for a few months so don’t know how he’s doing now but it’s very bad.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 4, 2014 at 22:50

      Pretty sure blood in your stool has nothing to do with eating raw starch from potatoes.

      Could be a lot of other things though. Go have a doc look at your bung, or further up.

      Do it now.

    • Spanish Caravan on February 5, 2014 at 07:14

      Taggart, how much blood are you seeing? Chances of hemorrhoids or anal fissures are very low with RS because your stool becomes soft. There shouldn’t be any abrasion caused by dense stool mass. You may have a pre-existing issue, possibly colitis, etc., given bloating and slow transit. If anything, at 4 tbsp., RS should make you regular even if you’re not eating as much — that tells me there’s something wrong. This has nothing to do with any nightshade issue. I’d lay off RS until you resolve the bleeding and go see a GI.

      As for mood disturbances, have you been on SSRIs or any anti-depressants or mood-altering drugs? Had such issues before? I could see how RS temporarily overloads neurotransmitters and have SSRI type of side effect in those with low levels.

    • Junkgrl on February 5, 2014 at 12:24

      Your pain sounds like TMS-Tension Myositis Syndrome. Pain and eczema with NO explanation other than it began when I swung my leg over my bike to dismount and then pain. No injury. Richard is familiar with this pain syndrome. I learned about it from a random remark from him that I caught when I was reading about the RS. This could be the answer why so many people have low back pain, hip pain, knee pain,unexplained rashes and a whole host of other modern maladies we didn’t have in the past as we do now. Even my past Bulimia. I too did the nutrition, exercise, Googling until I was so confused I didn’t know what to do–other than I noticed that for all the “advice”, including on Paleo sites, etc., hardly anyone was definitively being helped in any way. Read the books by John E. Sarno. Decide for yourself. I also described myself as “even keeled” individual but then it has come to me by understanding TMS that I have been experiencing “emotional flatlining” instead of just being a calm person. There is a difference. Your mind will do anything to protect you from the emotions we all harbor–the emotions we hide to present the persona we want others to believe about us to the world. I know, it all sounds Woo Woo, but this has explained so much to me and my pain is so much better. We have a body. We have a mind. How can we believe these two operate independently without a mindbody connection. Best to you, Taggart.

    • DuckDodgers on February 5, 2014 at 12:55

      Not sure if this helps, but taking a lot of RS can sometimes cause large stools to pass and if there isn’t enough natural lubrication in the colon, this can cause an anal fissure to happen, it’s a slight tearing of the sphincter at the rectum. The large stools are generally a good thing, since it is literally cleaning out the colon. But, the tearing can cause a little bit of blood to appear on the toilet paper and sometimes drop a little bit into the toilet.

    • Taggart on February 6, 2014 at 11:59

      Thanks Gabriealla (and everyone else)

      I’ll go to the doctor and get myself checked out.

    • Doug on February 9, 2014 at 02:16

      Hi Richard:

      Sorry for the TMI here, but somebody may need to hear this.

      I got some blood in my stool right after I upped my PS dose to 4 tb. I’ve started with 1 tb about 3 weeks ago and have been buidling up. Mindblowing results by the way, thanks to you and Angelo and Tater Tot Bob most of all I guess.

      I’m 57 and had a handful of painful hemorrhoidal (who can spell this?) swelling episodes after age 25, but none since I started this diet journey by going on Atkins 10 years ago.

      I believe the swelling trauma left my some of my membranes permanently damaged and they are sensitive. Twice in the past I’ve tried fiber supplements psyllium and metamucil and both times they have irritated the membranes and caused minor temporary hemmoroidal bleeding.

      By the way, I’m pretty sure you can tell if rectal bleeding is hemmroidal i.e. at the exit point by how brightly red the blood is. Bright red means your problem is not serious. Dark red means you may have a more serious problem further up the pipe.

      Re this recent bleeding. It was very brief, bright red and was gone after 1 day. 1 day is good because once one starts it usually takes up to a week to heal. I stopped the PS right away, but I’m going right back after I give this thing a week to heal up. I’ll build my way back up from 1tb again and see how it goes. I’ll be cautious though, after you’ve been through swollen roids.

      Not expecting it to be a problem.

    • rs711 on February 9, 2014 at 05:22


      Maybe this is worth trying:

      on the days where you take PS to slowly build back up to your target levels, try avoiding other fibers so that you can really tell what is having what effect (+ making it easier for your fragile digestive system to handle something it ain’t used to much)

      Good luck!

    • gabriella kadar on February 9, 2014 at 06:14

      Agreed rs711. Internal haemorrhoids are just thin tissue covered varicose veins. Frequent daily bowel movements will abrade the surface and result in bleeding.

      My suggestion is the following: get an enema bulb. Fill with a mixture of 1 ounce of oil and warm water. Instill. (Squirt it into the rectum). Aim for about 4 ounces of fluid. This combo will provide lubrication for the stool and a concomitant wash of the tissues as the fecal matter passes over them.

      You can use any oil, mineral, sunflower, corn oil, sesame oil………whatever is cheapest. Don’t waste EVOO. 😉 Just you’ll need to clean the toilet bowl more frequently. The oil will stick to the sides of the bowl.

    • Doug on February 9, 2014 at 07:23

      Thanks, Gabriella. I’ll give that a try. This is probably an area for self experimetation, but could you suggest an initial frequency for using the mixture?

    • Doug on February 9, 2014 at 07:37

      Ok I’ve been taking potato starch for about 3 weeks, building up from 1 tb per dau to 4 tb per day, mixing with kombucha or kefir, letting it sit for 10 minutes then drinking at different times of day.

      I can’t cover everything, but let me try to hit the high points

      1) I feel like something basic has been set right in my physiology. I have a calmness that I’ve never experienced before, almost druglike.
      2) This is accompanied by increased energy. I wake up in the middle of the night and feel like sprinting.
      3) Deeper sleep, initially long and uninterrupted, but gradually I’ve been waking up very early with too much energy to go back to sleep. With later naps, averaging between 6 and 7 hours a day at mom.
      4) Vivid, disjointed dreams. Zero anxiety, even in recurring dreams where I formerly had anxiety.
      5) Controlled appetite. This is a huge problem of mine and has caused me to lapse from my modified paleo diet over the last 3 years.
      6) Only downside so far has been flatluence, which has not been too bad and pretty much odorless. “fasting the bugs” as Richard says, has definitely helped reduce this problem.

      By the way, my wife tried PS, but got constipated. She switched to eating just a quarter of a cooked and chilled potatoe every night before bed and is having even better results than me. She had a dream where she as ziplining and helped a guy who fell. She had NO anxiety. You have to know what a nervous nellie my wife is to appreciate the magnitude of that dream.

      More interesting though is she has hypertension, unstable blood pressure which spikes up into the 170/110 area frequently. It’s too early to be sure, but there are some signs that the RS is helping.

  42. Curious RSer on February 4, 2014 at 23:45

    A friend and I are trying the potato starch. There are positives, such as better sleep for her, and staying warmer in the cold outdoors for me. I am posting this about a minor negative. Has anybody else noticed bags under their eyes while on the potato starch? We noticed puffy eyes independent of one another. And any idea why this would happen if it is indeed being caused by the starch? Thanks!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 5, 2014 at 00:11

      Have you ever had puffy eyes before?

      Baggy pants?

      Droopy drawers?

      Please. That is simply not in any rational universe anything to waste anyone’s time on. Jesus.

      • bachcole on November 2, 2015 at 09:44


    • TR on February 5, 2014 at 08:20

      CuriousRS- Sign of fluid retention. From excess starch? Don’t know. I would say it’s not a waste of time to address it….and fairly sure the Nazarene is not involved.

    • Curious RSer on February 5, 2014 at 23:08

      To the extent that it’s likely systemic, I’d think it could tell us something interesting. Yes I’ve had puffy eyes before as have most of us. However, I think that the degree of it on PS is quite an outlier. It’s interesting that others don’t seem to have this experience, but fluid retention (as posited by TR) seems possible. I’ve heard that dehydration also might cause that and seems more likely (according to a peek at Google). But why would it show up with potato starch? Is it a sign that I need to change something else in the gut to get the most out of RS?

    • Spanish Caravan on February 5, 2014 at 23:37

      Other people have puffy eyes too. I’ve had my eyes dry out. It could be an allergic reaction and could also be a nightshade reaction. But there’re myriad possibilities. If you wanna really find out what it is, you need to observe whether it’s eyelids that are puffy, whether your eyeballs are dry or watery, how’s the skin around your eyelids — brittle, fragile? Could be a hypothyroid symptom or a thyroid eye disease. If you’re puffy and your eyes are watery at the same time, it could be to compensate for dryness, which alternates. It could also result from leaks from small blood vessels. Most Sjogren sufferers have a prolonged period of puffy and watery eyes before they end up with permanently dry eyes, just like prediabetics that overdeploy insulin before they permanently become insulin resistant and diabetic. You can literally chase every lead down a rabbit hole.

  43. John Nugent on February 5, 2014 at 00:51

    I’ve noticed dreams are quite vivid – and erotic, farting like a horse, sleeping better. Only been on it a couple of weeks.

  44. Is Low-Carb / High-Fat effective in clearing Candida? | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page on February 5, 2014 at 02:17

    […] Candida: you can read this interesting comment at The Top Three Reported Benefits of Resistant Starch | Free The Animal What you are describing seems to be the so-called low-carb flu when your body is deprived of […]

  45. Pohtaytoh on February 5, 2014 at 04:36

    Loving the benefits 1, 2, and 3, plus appetite suppression and warmer body temperature. Looking forward to the next round of blood test results so I can see if other markers have improved.

    I do know someone who took small amounts and experienced diarrhea. I’m suggesting they reduce the amount and keep trying, but wonder why they’d get that reaction. My guess is it is something to do with having taken a lot of different antibiotics lately, but I wish I knew more about what is up with that.

  46. PI Low Carb on February 5, 2014 at 06:19

    Catching up with all the RS posts and comments has taken a couple of weeks!! I live in the Philippines, so getting Bob’s potato starch isn’t going to happen. This leaves me in the unique situation of being the only commenter I’ve seen who is attempting to get my resistant starch from raw potatoes. I started with about 100 grams of raw potato, peeled and sliced on a plate with apple cider vinegar, salt, pepper and a little Tabasco sauce. I have been finishing up a course of antibiotics (10 days azithromycin) so I didn’t expect much, although pre and probiotic are supposed to help the “good bugs” get reestablished more rapidly following antibiotics.
    I am now up to 200 plus grams of raw potato a day. I figure this is giving me 30 to 60 grams of RS a day. I just finished the meds so now hopefully I will be able to see what this will do for me. I also eat a small serving of kimchi and yogurt with my tater’s. The rest of my diet is pretty much low-carb (one carb load a week), combined with IF (8 hour feeding window often less).
    The two effects I have noticed so far (1 week in ) is extreme appetite suppression. Low carb makes IF very easy already, but combined with raw taters makes eating anything else purely optional. And blood sugars are crazy better. I rarely get over 100 except during my carb meal where I peak below 120ish. If you could see what I eat, you would know how remarkable this is.
    I don’t know if this will work well with raw potatoes or if there are any downsides (nightshade toxins etc) The research on the web seems to be divided. I also sometimes leave one of the taters unpeeled to get a little more probiiotics. Hopefully someone with more knowledge than me can advise if this amount of raw taters is a bad idea or if this will even work.
    Thanks for the posts and comments. Great resource!!

    • Deb on February 5, 2014 at 07:42

      My husband discovered our masticating juicer works well on potatoes. The starch just sinks to the bottom of the potato juice.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 5, 2014 at 07:46

      I’ll be you get a lot more juice if you take the pulp, add water and pulse in a blender or food processor a few times, then strain through cheesecloth.

      Try it, let us know.

    • Deb on February 5, 2014 at 08:10

      Note to self – get cheesecloth.

    • DuckDodgers on February 5, 2014 at 17:49

      Yes, the blender/water method is a better way to go than eating raw potatoes. Raw potatoes are probably fine so long as you are eating very fresh potatoes that haven’t been exposed to light for very long. Potatoes are nightshades, and therefore have the potential to be flooded with Solanine (and other toxins). They were never intended to be eaten raw and were domesticated to make them tolerable when cooked. (The raw tubers that were often eaten by our ancestors for RS weren’t nightshade tubers).

      Most of the time the solanine in a potato is near the skin — particularly concentrated on the eyes that form. So, raw potatoes should always be peeled. And if there is a tinge of green below the peels, throw the potato away because the entire potato can be flooded with solanine. I ate a peeled greenish potato a few months ago and really regretted it. I felt really awful, and I was lucky it wasn’t worse.

      Solanine is water soluble, so the starch making process — which involves a lot of water — will wash the solanine away (but don’t consume the potato water that the solanine went into). You can find YouTube videos that show you how to make potato starch at home — people have been doing something similar to this for millennia:

      By the way, you will instantly know if you encounter solanine while eating raw potato. If you notice a burning sensation in the back of your throat while chewing and eating a raw potato, that’s the solanine that’s burning your throat. This is why solanine poisoning rarely happens — since no one likes the sensation. Stop eating the raw potato immediately if you notice that sensation — it’s not worth it!

    • PI Low Carb on February 5, 2014 at 20:52

      Bummer – looks like the general concensus here is to avoid eating raw potatoes. 🙁 Unfortunate – for me it was easy and offered the other possible benefits of a lot of vitamins and minerals (potassium) and some quality protein. I never felt sick eating the potatoes. Kinda reminded me of the dokan radish you get with Japonese/Korean food sometimes.

    • Deb on February 6, 2014 at 06:48

      So what he did was, he took 18 smallish potatoes (approx 5 lbs), peeled them, and ground them up fine and let them soak in a bowl of water for about half an hour. THEN he ran all that through the juicer, and then dried the starch. He got about 1 c of dried starch.

    • DuckDodgers on February 6, 2014 at 21:29

      @PI Low Carb, I’m sure you can find potato starch or green banana flour in the Philippines. They might just be called something else (“potato flour starch” or “banana flour”). Take them home and mix them into water. If it sinks to the bottom of the glass, you probably found the right thing.

    • Helen on February 8, 2014 at 01:21

      Same here 🙂 I’ve been eating 1-2 raw potatoes a day for about a month. Probably not enough?.. But I do feel more energy, brain fog lifted, better sleep, suppressed appetite… Just started PS, so scared)))

  47. kayumochi on February 5, 2014 at 07:16

    A rectal fissure is a common source of bleeding. Changes in diet and defecation frequency can bring them on.

    • gabkad on February 5, 2014 at 18:36

      kayumochi, anal fissures. And they are exquisitely painful. Taggart reports no pain, etc. Polyps and colorectal cancer tend to be asymptomatic.

    • kayumochi on February 6, 2014 at 06:31

      I had fissures off and on for years and never had a moment of pain, just a bit of bright red blood. It is the darker blood that is a worry I hear …

    • gabkad on February 6, 2014 at 19:49

      Lucky you.

  48. kayumochi on February 5, 2014 at 07:26

    Baggy eyes? A processed carb – sugar binge always does it for me. And alcohol. PS, never.

  49. the_whizzer on February 5, 2014 at 08:14

    Question to clarify – are ALL varieties of potato starch the right stuff? Is there a particular production process that I need to enquire about?

    I’m confused about this point because I’ve read talk of cooked and uncooked potatoes in PS. Is that right?

    For instance, the Encona Farina. Is it enough to know that its potato starch (ie it behaves in the way you’d expect) or do I need to look into the production process?

    • muddy on February 5, 2014 at 15:55

      Farina IS potato starch. Your search has ended. If you’re not convinced, stir a tablespoon of it in water until fully mixed and leave it a while. The starch will sink and consolidate on the bottom of the vessel, leaving nearly clear water.

  50. Carlos on February 5, 2014 at 11:04

    When does the RS start to kick in in a diabetic T2

  51. Carlos on February 5, 2014 at 11:07

    Been reading about RS….I live in Colombia South America trying to find local alternatives for RS.
    I have 3 options
    Corn starch Maizena in a box,
    Yuca (tapioca) Starch in a box
    or make my own from green platains -labor intensive.
    I’d appreciate your feedback and help.
    My best,
    T2 Diabetes having trouble lowering my BG Thanks

    • tatertot on February 5, 2014 at 16:44

      Carlos –

      Corn starch – no good
      Tapioca starch – unknown, possibly no good
      Green plantains – good source

      Get a great big piece of chicken wire, peel and slice green plantains, lay on the wire, put it in the sun. Put a fan on it if you can. They’ll get bone-dry, then just eat them like crackers or grind into powder. It’s not all that labor intensive. 1 green plantain is equivalent to 8TBS of potato starch. So, all you need is like 1/2 to 1 plantain per day. They are nice to snack on. The hardest part is learning to peel them. You need to cut them in half lengthwise, then work the meat out with your fingers. Takes me maybe 1 minute to do one. You can’t peel them like bananas.

    • gabkad on February 5, 2014 at 19:08

      tatertot, yesterday a.m. sautéed a half ripe plantain in butter for breakfast (plus two sunnyside up eggs). The plantain was a bit sweet but starchy. Then last night, 2 tablespoons of potato starch in live culture yoghurt.

      NOW you say that a plantain = 8 tablespoons of PS? So, I figure that plantain = 4 tablespoons PS Perfect Health Diet plating is 3 slices of plantain. That’s a snack! That would never work for me.

      Stellar TMI this a.m. btw. The plantain was a fart factory. PS doesn’t do that.

    • Spanish Caravan on February 5, 2014 at 23:05

      Here’s my suggestion for eating yucca for R3 consumption. Get a bag of frozen yucca slices from Goya for $5 (5 pounds). Leave it in room temperature for a day. Put it back in the freezer. Next morning, put it out to defreeze again. Before going to bed, put it back in the freezer. Do this for a week to 10 days.

      The water will gradually disappear and what you end up with is a cassava equivalent of chuno. It’s dry, white and hard but is brittle so it’s very edible. Actually, it tastes a lot like fan-dried green plantains. Except with the refreeze/defreeze, you’re getting R3. Before eating, I actually microwave for 30 seconds; not too concerned about them becoming complex carbo because they’re completely dry and no starch forms.

      If you’re after R3, that’s the way to do it. Haven’t tested my BG but I have a feeling it will be similar to fan-dried plantains.

    • Vinnie on February 7, 2014 at 16:49

      Great idea! I cut green plantains into chip sizes and whack the skin with a butcher knife. It’s freezing here so I placed the chips onto a rack in the oven overnight using only the oven light to dry them. Came out great. Loved them with sea salt. Pretty good when dipped in salsa. Many thanks for the suggestion.

  52. tatertot on February 5, 2014 at 19:17

    GabKad – My figure was for raw, dried plantain…not cooked. A large, raw plantain should have about 50-60g of RS. When cooked, presumably next to none, just like a potato. But, plantains have lots of good fiber and other stuff. I like them.

  53. Vinnie on February 5, 2014 at 20:14

    I haven’t seen any benefits from PS except two and they were quite significant. I did not have any vivid dreams nor could I determine any blood glucose benefit (glucometer; not diabetic). I am Paleo/Primal and I started having motility issues this winter (2-4 days) which didn’t seem to bother me other than knowing that I had a problem. That’s when I discovered this website via Mark’s Daily Apple. I took to 4tbsp of PS quite quickly and my TMI issues were completely resolved to my utter satisfaction (took about a week). The other benefit I fear to mention publicly because it may just be a coincidence and I don’t want to get anybody’s hopes up.

    We’re experiencing a pretty severe case of the stomach flu (norovirus?) in north Texas. My wife had it and the usual vomiting and diarrhea before I started to come down with it. No symptoms other than having normal TMI but 5 times in one day then my stomach started to feel “funny”. Fearing the worse and not taking any probiotics or other prebiotics at the time, I figured my gut biome needed reinforcement and I found a tiny two dose bottle of kefir in coconut water for $2.50. Took it immediately in the parking lot after having taken 4tbsp of PS before heading to the store. One hour later, I was fine. Did get a head and chest cold later but never any stomach or gut issues – only respiratory challenges.

    So, take my story with a grain of salt. YMMV.

    • gabkad on February 6, 2014 at 03:49

      Vinnie, have you ever had full blown Norovirus infection in the past? I’m asking because there are people who don’t get it because of genetic reasons.

    • Vinnie on February 6, 2014 at 17:45

      Gabkad, not that I can recall. Interesting. Perhaps it is genetics? I just thought the timing was just a bit too close to be coincidental. Who knows.

    • Wilbur on February 6, 2014 at 18:35

      Interesting! In my house, person 1 had stomach flu for about 18 hours. Vomiting, high fever, aches, very sick. Person 2 had the same a few days later. In between them, I had a 3 hour episode where my temp shot up and my joints ached terribly. After about 3 hours, I was fine. No further symptoms. I take BRM religiously. I cannot say whether I am genetically protected, but I have had stomach flu in the past. Dunno what type.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 6, 2014 at 23:26

      There is no such thing as stomach flu. Old wives.

      It’s a foodborn illness and you probably all came in contact with it. Those with a more robust gut biome will likely get past it quicker.


    • Liz on August 28, 2014 at 10:36

      Okay, I am wondering if there really is something to your story about using resistant starch to treat stomach bugs (or food born illness, whatever it is). I was hit with a major stomach bug last night. Woke up shaky, sweating, chilled, and with terrible nausea and stomach cramps. I started diarrhea and vomiting and it increased in frequency over the next few hours till it was almost constant. At the point at which I’d given up sitting in bed and just sprawled on the bathroom floor 🙁 the thought occurred to me to try some resistant starch. I took about 2 teaspoons in a full cup of water.
      I was not only surprised to find that it stayed down, I was relieved to discover that my stomach was calming down and the cramps and nausea were subsiding. My symptoms abated so much that about 15 minutes later I was able to go back to sleep. I woke up about an hour ago and now I feel fine other than the usual soreness and weakness that’s typical after a nasty bug.
      I would have chalked it up to coincidence, but the results were so immediate and lasting that I really think that there might be something to this. Whatever the case, next time I get a stomach bug, I’m not waiting till I reach the “laying on the bathroom floor” phase before I take some potato starch!

  54. mrfreddy on February 6, 2014 at 09:49

    So, I wonder about RS for dogs? Has anyone tried it?

    Our two pugs have been eating raw meat and bones for their entire lives and so far it has worked out great. They are lean, healthy, hearty dogs. Only one small problem, since their poop is less voluminous than dogs that eat the normal crap-in-a-bag, they are never in that much of a hurry to complete their TMI bizness. Normally that’s fine, a nice long walk usually does the trick. But when the weather’s bad or time is short, an increased sense of urgency in these matters would be welcome heh heh.

    • Yeastie on February 6, 2014 at 19:05

      Last week I gave my dog, a Corgi, 1 T of PS in his dinner. The next day he had frequent bowel movements, including some diarrhea. It could have been totally unrelated to the P.S. I’m going to try it again because I have seen the power of replacing expensive, vet prescribed dog food (for severe allergies) with REAL food. On a diet of beef, liver, some lamb, bone broth, bones, lots of sardines and canned salmon, yogurt, vegetables and apples, my dog’s skin allergies completely,100% went away and–as a surprising benefit– his copious shedding was reduced by 95%. I am not exaggerating. However, like me (his owner), his new diet may have made him vulnerable to yeast infections because he did have one bad, miserable episode. This is why I want to try giving him P.S. again. I think I might also add a little RS3 potato and rice to see if that helps too. I’ll report back.

    • mrfreddy on February 7, 2014 at 04:13

      For a dog his size, 1 T might be a bit too much? Maybe start with just a dusting of the stuff and work up to about 1/2 T?

  55. Charles on February 6, 2014 at 22:05

    One more thing I wanted to mention, that others have reported as well, is an end to “brain fog.” I work in a job that requires a lot of thinking. It’s also somewhat high stress, though not overly so. I’ve been working on the same project, one of the largest of its kind and part of a multi-billion dollar litigation, for the past 3+ years. In the last year I’ve really seen a degradation in my ability to think clearly for long periods. It was scaring me. In the past, I’ve found that Wellbutrin, often prescribed for Adult ADD, improved my ability to concentrate. So I started taking that. And I also added a couple of choline sources. That protocol helped, but I was still not where I wanted to be mentally, and I was worried I was just at the end of my ability, at 62, to work at the level of intensity I used to find pretty easy.

    Then, after a couple of months of potato starch, I found that brain fog to be lifting. And I stopped the Wellbutrin and the choline sources. The improvements have continued, and while I’m not at the levels I was at in my 30s and 40s, I don’t feel any lack of the ability to concentrate when I choose to. That could be the result of much better sleep of course, and I’m sure that’s a lot of it. But I would also bet there are other things going on as well with neurotransmitter and hormone production. There are a lot of things that it would be great to have controlled studies about to know all the changes that are coming from the changes in the gut. I’d particularly like to know about these kinds of improvements that one would never intuitively connect to changes in bacteria colonies in your large intestine…

    • Spanish Caravan on February 6, 2014 at 23:02

      Wellbutrin is not an SSRI but NDRI (Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor). You seem to be benefitting from the dopamine and serotonin-boosting effects of RS, as gut microbes that eat butyrate make such neurotransmitters. It’s interesting, Wellbutrin is also used for smoking cessation and one of its notable side effect is vivid dreams, just like Chantix, another smoking cessation drug, that induces weird and bizarre vivid dreams. (But Chantix is not an NDRI).

      How are your dreams on RS? How much RS are you taking and when, before sleep? Do you have cold hands or toes?

    • Charles on February 6, 2014 at 23:21


      “…gut microbes that eat butyrate make such neurotransmitters.” I’ve heard that, but not seen the references that mention that specifically. Do you have some?

    • Charles on February 6, 2014 at 23:34

      I think it may be the dopamine, based on my response to alcohol, as noted in this article:

      “We found that people vulnerable to developing alcoholism experienced an unusually large brain dopamine response when they took a drink,” said Leyton. “This large response might energize reward-seeking behaviors and counteract the sedative effects of alcohol. Conversely, people who experience minimal dopamine release when they drink might find the sedative effects of alcohol especially pronounced.”

      I’ve found that I’m drinking much less without trying to, I think because I don’t crave the wake-up function I used to get from alcohol. I never drank to relax, I found it stimulating.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 6, 2014 at 23:51


      Alcohol has always been a stimulant for me, depressant only beyond insane levels of intake.

    • Charles on February 7, 2014 at 08:48

      Also, one last note, just before I started the potato starch, I was trying to lose a few lbs. by going into ketosis. That’s always worked before. But this time, not only did it not work, when I went into ketosis, the brain fog got worse, much worse. It made me stupid ;=) It was like the whole Flowers for Algernon thing (old SciFi reference). That, plus the fact that I wasn’t losing any body fat, was really weird. I’ve been low carb for 40+ years, so my gut biome was probably pretty messed up. But I had never heard that from anyone on a ketotic diet.

  56. Charles on February 6, 2014 at 23:16

    My dreams are much more vivid than previously. Wellbutrin didn’t have that effect with me, or not that I noticed. But it may have been because my sleep wasn’t as deep as it is now.

    I take 4-6 tablespoons of potato starch a day, and some cooked/cooled potatoes now and then. I’ve not really had cold hands/feet, but I’ve been taking thyroid meds for 40 years. I take it in the morning and before bed.

    • gabkad on February 7, 2014 at 19:50

      Charles, I too was having some cognitive issues: word search function sucked big time. I was seriously thinking my brain was turning into mush. Now, my vocabulary has ramped up. I too think it’s the improvement in sleep quality. These days I don’t dare to not take my potato starch. Just it sounds really whacky when I explain the benefits to medical specialists. Fortunately they are all informed on the gut biome since it has now become THE BIG THING, so connecting it up for them from this angle gives them something to seriously consider.

    • Charles on February 7, 2014 at 20:18

      Yep, “word search function” is exactly what was freaking me out, too. I still get it the next day if I have a little too much wine after dinner. But generally not at all.

  57. Mike Ede on February 7, 2014 at 00:54

    Has anyone turned up any info on specific bacterial strains that are known to digest RS?

  58. Mike Ede on February 7, 2014 at 04:38

    Whilst looking for answers to my own question above I stumbled across this:

    Seems some sources of RS aren’t that resistant after all.

  59. Bri on February 7, 2014 at 06:45

    Thank you for the RS information. I have a child who has bed wetting at night due to hypoglycemia. I have read that cornstarch helps children with this issue. I assume potato starch would also work. How much for a 5 year old? Are there any concerns with PS lowering blood sugar too much? We eat a paleo diet with lots of veggies, but I am now increasing carbs for all of us…thinking this also may help with my sons blood sugar dips. Any help here would be greatly appreciated.

    • Tanya on February 7, 2014 at 22:05

      For my kids, I’m roughly aiming to scale down by calories consumed—theirs compared to mine, starting with the 3 T/day that seems to work well for me. I’m problem-solving different stuff, it’s more directly digestion related, so I can’t speak to your specific goal.

      If you haven’t already, you may want to search the site for the word hypoglycemia. I *think* I remember someone who found that potato starch helped normalize blood sugar (on the low end too, not just the high end).

      Fwiw, I found that my kids and I all had transient low magnesium symptoms when we started/ramped up, and my son wets the bed more when he’s low on mag. So if you see an uptick early on, it may not be a worsening of what you’re already dealing with.

    • Bri on February 9, 2014 at 18:11

      Thank you Tanya. I think the PS and corn starch before bed are working! It’s been 3.5 years of bed wetting and last night we had zero accidents. The accidents were dwindling since starting the PS about 5 days ago. I also started increasing safe starches. I am not calling it a victory yet, but we have never had a dry night since changing his diet due to allergies, 3 years ago. I am feeling very excited that we may have figured out something we were missing! Thanks for the tip on the magnesium. I have been giving homeopathic mag phos 6x at night, as well.

    • Bri on February 9, 2014 at 18:27

      Oh…one more thing…big thing! Poop…amazing changes in that category, too. In addition to the bed wetting, we are now seeing regular BMs 3 times per day. This is the same kid that needed enemas regularly due to constipation. If he didn’t get an enema, it was 3-4 days between BMs. Quite amazed with these changes.

    • tatertot on February 9, 2014 at 21:49

      Bri – keep us posted! if I had young ones, I’d be giving them some potato starch from the first solid foods the ate. I think that going straight from high pre- and probiotic breast milk or formula right into a diet low in both sets kids up for a lifetime of problems.

    • Ken on February 10, 2014 at 04:25

      I love the internet. We have a child with some of these issues. We have not been religious about RS for them but have added here and there where and when we can. I was unsure about kids after hearing Chris Kresser say it was not necessary for everyone. I thought we would just mainly experiment on ourselves. We are going to ramp this up a bit for our kids (all four of them) and see what kind of changes we observe. Thanks for posting!

  60. Forest on February 7, 2014 at 19:38

    How long before the farts subside? I’ve been taking 2 TBSP in about 8 ounces of kefir twice a day for 3 weeks now. It is still out of control. I start a new job monday and I can’t go to work like this. They may call hazmat on me and have me taken away. Seriously I want to keep up the regimen but the farts are just ridiculous and quantity, decibels, and potency. Any suggestions? Thanks!

    • Richard Nikoley on February 7, 2014 at 22:06


      Such a a pussy. 🙂

      Ok, here’s the thing. I got it to adjust by fasting the bugs. Soon as it gets out of control and you’re weary of the hilarity and enjoyment of a 20-second fart, just stop. Fast them for 2-3 days, then take it up again. Don’t always dose around food or with nutrition like kefir. Dose with plain water on an empty stomach in the morning.

      Mix it up. I can now do 8 TBS with no farts, I can eat beans with no farts. Yet ever once in a while, farts will come back. A day or two of fasting (often, for me too, ie, I eat nothing for 18-30 hours), completely resolves and I feel better than ever.

      You’ll be an expert at this in a few months.

  61. Martha on February 7, 2014 at 21:53

    Forest, if it was me, I’d knock off the PS for the weekend, and then start with one Tbs. in water once per day, later on in the week. I have done this, and it calmed down the farting quite well. Also, no beans with the PS, that is a volatile combo. Maybe the sugars in the kefir are adding to the gas volume. Good luck!

  62. Forest on February 7, 2014 at 22:13

    Thanks for the reply. I agree the farts are quite hilarious and if it wasn’t for a new job sitting in close quarters I wouldn’t care.

    Fasting is not a problem. One last question though. When you say fasting should I still continue the PS during that time or stop the PS during the fast as well?


    Martha – I have been eating a lot of beans as well so you are probably right, that has been greatly increasing the magnitude of the problem.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 8, 2014 at 00:12

      I think do all three. Fast yourself, fast the bugs, fast both of you and mix it up. Yea, I’ve done a couple of fasts where I just do PS in water.

      Do everything.

  63. Laura on February 10, 2014 at 14:04

    I’ve been reading tons of articles & comments about RS & decided to dive in. I’m only about 2 weeks in. I started with 1Tbs & worked up to 4. Gas got bad at 4, so back down to 3 which has been good. I also eat 1-2 green bananas a day. I’m already seeing benefits– better sleep, better BMs, more energy (I’m attributing to the increase of carbs since I’ve been low carb Paleo for 2 years now).

    This has all be fantastic! BUT…My skin is breaking out like CRAZY. I wish I could say I’m not so vain that I would stop doing something that makes me feel good just because I have pimples now– but at 31, finally clearing my skin permanently through low carb Paleo, I hate to revert back to bad skin, and I’m afraid I am that vain. I’ve been reading comments like crazy & haven’t seen anyone else comment about it. I could have missed it in the massive amounts of info I’ve been reading, so forgive me if you’ve addressed this before. Feel free to send me away in the fine Richard Nikoley snarky fashion I admire 🙂 Is this temporary? Common? Is there something I need to do to help avoid the breakouts?

    Thank you!

    • tatertot on February 10, 2014 at 15:40

      @Laura – WTF??? Are you THAT stupid? I see that zit on your neck finally came to a head.

      OK, got that out of my system, thanks for the encouragement–it felt pretty good, actually.

      Seriously, though, not sure what to say. No one that I can remember has reported breaking out, but that doesn’t mean it’s not related. All I could say would be to try eliminating things and adding them back, like stop the green bananas for a couple weeks, back off to 1-2TBS of PS, that sort of thing.

      Also, if you are not, you may want to pick up some probiotics and start on those, too. They do seem to make a big difference for people as much as I have been resisting talking about them.

      The ones Richard mentioned the other day seem to have the most diversity, if you want to try just one, try Prescript Assist. There’s also AOR Probiotic-3, which has some good soil bacteria, but it may not be enough on its own and you’ll need to combine it with a cheap-o Sam’s club Colon Health type probiotic that has lactobacillus and bifido strains in it.


      (wow, that does feel good)

    • Richard Nikoley on February 10, 2014 at 16:18


      OK, I’ll come clean. In the several—yes several—months after I began PS, I got some combination of zits and fluid filled small “boils” things on my thighs. Like all over and they arose every night.

      I just scratched them off with fingernail, finally figuring out what they’re for beyond scratching an itch or making for some other toolful use.

      I miss them. It was kinda fun while it lasted. (I’m weird)

    • gabkad on February 10, 2014 at 16:37

      Richard, seeing as men appear to be getting erections from this stuff, could there be a testosterone connection with the zits? Depends where they are. If they are on the lower part of the face, then with women, it’s testosterone imbalance. If it’s all over, I have no suggestions.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 10, 2014 at 18:46

      I don’t know Gab. Hypochondrism just isn’t in me.

      Now, I could have jumped up, written a post, and I’d have 300 comments by now.

      I just scratched them all off with my fingernails, digging deep. Simple as that. Gone now. Crisis, panic and horror averted.

      Didn’t even scare the shit out of thousands,

    • gabriella kadar on February 10, 2014 at 19:03

      Me neither. Generally most of the time, shit doesn’t just pop up de novo. It’s just gets noticed.

      Remember that movie ‘my big fat Greek wedding’? The father used windex applied to everything. Well, it actually does work to dry out pimples and it works fast. The ammonia.

    • Laura on February 11, 2014 at 05:23

      Ha! Thanks 🙂

  64. Richard Nikoley on February 10, 2014 at 20:47

    “Me neither.”

    You think I wasn’t channeling our emails.


  65. Ellen on February 12, 2014 at 13:00

    I have noticed a very marked decline in Tatar build up on the back of my bottom teeth since starting the PS. I may have mentioned this before. But I just came across an interesting connection in a book on Ayurveda…it linked the tartar build up to blood sugar problems…..they saw this how many centuries ago???

    • Ellen on February 13, 2014 at 06:17

      Since sometime this summer sporadically and in varying amounts and more regularly four T since the beginning of November

    • gabriella kadar on February 12, 2014 at 18:59

      Ellen, how long have you been taking PS?

  66. DuckDodgers on February 12, 2014 at 07:39

    n=1 update. I don’t yawn anymore. I actually think I’ve lost the ability to yawn — despite the fact that I’ve been busy with work and only getting 5 to 7 hours of sleep every night for the past few weeks. Before taking PS I would yawn constantly. Now I can’t even yawn if I see someone yawning. This is insane.

  67. quattromomma on February 12, 2014 at 08:17

    Many have commented on the calmness and sense of wellbeing. To me, it feels similar to the oxytocin release breastfeeding moms get with milk letdown. Oxytocin is also released during sexual activity in both men and women—that “afterglowy” feeling .

    Anyone know of a connection between gut bacteria and oxytocin levels?

  68. Charles on February 12, 2014 at 09:03

    “We discover that supplementing the gut microbiome with lactic acid microbes in drinking water accelerates the wound-healing process to occur in half the time required for matched control animals. Further, we find that Lactobacillus reuteri enhances wound-healing properties through up-regulation of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, a factor integral in social bonding and reproduction, by a vagus nerve-mediated pathway. Bacteria-triggered oxytocin serves to activate host CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ immune T regulatory cells conveying transplantable wound healing capacity to naive Rag2-deficient animals. This study determined oxytocin to be a novel component of a multi-directional gut microbe-brain-immune axis, with wound-healing capability as a previously unrecognized output of this axis. “

  69. Adrien on February 12, 2014 at 12:44


    I’m highly intolerant to nightshades, what would be a good alternative to potato starch for RS? Thanks

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 14:08

      In terms of percentages, the only things that come close are Hi-Maize corn starch, sold as King Arthur Corn Fiber, and banana flour. Both are about 50% RS by weight and incorporate well into smoothies, but not so great into water or milk–they tend to glop up.

      Otherwise, you could try getting your RS from real foods — green bananas, green plantains (dried), cooked and cooled/reheated rice and beans. If you eat just one really green banana per day, you will be getting the equivalent to 1-2TBS of potato starch, but they need to be pretty green! Not yellow at all.

    • Charles on February 12, 2014 at 14:18

      So not Mung Bean starch?

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 14:23

      Ha! I always forget about that one since it seems so foreign and I’ve never tried it myself. It is supposedly high in RS, but I’d have a hard time telling anyone to use it as a primary RS source, although, it may be perfectly suited for it.

      I do eat glass noodles several times a week made from mung bean starch, they are said to be very high in RS3.

      Have you tried raw mung bean starch? I just have to lump it with tapioca starch at this point until I saw really good evidence it has high RS. So far, the only two item that have been thoroughly vetted are potato and Hi-Maize, though I feel pretty comfortable recommending banana flour–even if it is a bit hard to use.

  70. Sarabeth Matilsky on February 12, 2014 at 17:29

    I’m convinced. I really am: there is something to this madness. I haven’t felt so HAPPY in so freaking long!! I feel more like myself than I have in years.

    But I’m trying to dose every which way, with probiotics and without, taking a “rest day” and taking large doses daily…and I would really like some opinions: What Is Going On when a person can produce such incredible volumes of Rank and Gross Farts? These smell horrible – What Does It Mean??

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 18:59

      Sarabeth – I was talking with a lady friend today who also was having gas issues. She said what worked for her was taking the PS on an empty stomach and not eating for several hours afterwards. Maybe give that a try if it fits your schedule.

      What works for me is to take it shortly before bed.

      I think it seems that when you have a gut full of vegetation and potato starch at the same time is when the major ‘fun’ is at its worst.

      So maybe a good way would be to eat normally all day, have most of your salad veggies at lunch, then a dinner of meat, starch, cooked veggies, light on the veggies, and take your PS a couple hours after you eat.

      Anybody else eat similar to this and still have gas?

      It would be really nice to narrow this down, I can see lots of people giving up due to gas, and can’t say I blame them.

    • gabriella kadar on February 12, 2014 at 19:21

      Sarabeth and Tatertot, my friend is also getting rancid farts. Maybe too much bacteroides and not enough firmicutes? I know she was eating mostly stuff like sausages and meat and not much in the way of vegetables. Eats Popcorn. She’s allegedly increased the vegetables but I’m certain this is inconsistent. She puts the PS into a banana/milk smoothie. I’ve suggested maybe to use yoghurt instead. Maybe the PS interferes with gastric acid/pepsin breakdown of the protein and it manages to get to the colon.

      Maybe this is from some specific foods. Cruciferous vegetables? Pulses? It would be interesting if someone would simply and consume only one vegetable per day in order to figure this out and not mix things up. Like eat only a very large portion of pureed spinach one day. Only a large amount of asparagus another day, cooked tomatoes etc. and tweeze out if this gas is from some sort of vegetable matter or if it’s from something else. Even maybe dairy.

      I wouldn’t be a good test subject because nothing except Romano beans and lentils gives me gas and even then it doesn’t appear to be stinky. Or I’ve lost my sense of smell. I don’t eat fruit, though. Acidic fruits discombobulate my stomach.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 19:23


      Ignore Tim.

      Embrace the farts!

      Take 4 TBS with 2 cups of beans and live it up. 🙂

      In some measure, I’m serious because I’ve found that sometimes, it’s so fucking ridiculous there’s nothing left to do but laf.

      I’m weird. But, what happens when there’s nothing to do but laf? How do you feel?

      ….Yea, back off now & then. At this point, it only hits me rarely and unexpectedly–which is funny. There I go again.

      I’ll shut up now.

    • Sarabeth Matilsky on February 12, 2014 at 19:33

      Well, I definitely am embracing the fartage, sort of. Seriously, even my husband agrees that he’d rather have a happy and stinky wife than a morose and depressive spouse-who-smells-good.

      But thank you for the ideas, Gabriella and Tim! I’m going to try some experimenting and see if I can reduce – ahem – some Production. I’ll report back if I have any luck.

      I began intermittent fasting as per Jaminet (two meals, one around noon and another at dinner) at the same time as beginning the starch (new year’s); at first I tried it in kefir at lunch, and then switched to “bolus dosing” early in the morning, with no food at all for another five hours afterward. I’d hoped that would reduce the gas, but it didn’t.

      Lately I’ve been experimenting with taking a lot in the morning and a lot more at night – I am noticing increased Good Moods when I take maybe 4 tbsp. morning, and another 4 at night, or 8 tbsp. in the morning only. But the farts were happening even with just one tbsp., so I’m thinking this might be a food combining issue rather than a dose thing.

      Interesting about the dairy…I might just skip a couple days of dairy-eating, and see what happens.

      I eat a ton of vegetables, cooked, raw, fermented, etc., so that definitely might contribute to the fermentation vat effect. No beans, though. I think I might die of stink-asphyxiation! I’ll save that experiment for Some Other Day…

    • gabriella kadar on February 12, 2014 at 20:10


      A typical breakdown of the chemical composition of farts is:
      Nitrogen: 20-90%
      Hydrogen: 0-50% (flammable)
      Carbon dioxide: 10-30%
      Oxygen: 0-10%
      Methane: 0-10% (flammable)

      Lighting Farts on Fire – The Blue Flame
      Human flatus may contain hydrogen gas and/or methane, which are flammable. If sufficient amounts of these gases are present, it’s possible to light the fart on fire. Keep in mind, not all farts are flammable. Although flatus has great YouTube fame for producing a blue flame, it turns out only about half of people have the archaea (bacteria) in their bodies that are necessary to produce methane. If you don’t make methane, you may still be able to ignite your farts (a dangerous practice!), but the flame will be yellow or possibly orange rather than blue.
      The Smell of Farts
      Flatus often stinks! There are several chemicals that contribute to the smell of farts: •skatole (by-product of meat digestion)
      •indole (by-product of meat digestion)
      •methanethiol (a sulfur compound)
      •dimethyl sulfide (a sulfur compound)
      •hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg odor, flammable)
      •volatile amines
      •short chain fatty acids
      •feces (if present in the rectum)
      The chemical composition and thus odor of farts differs according to your health and diet, so you would expect a vegetarian’s farts to smell different from those produced by a person who eats meat.

      Butyric acid would smell like rancid butter. If your farts of like this, then maybe you are producing more butyric acid than your coloncytes can absorb.

      There you’ve got the sulfur types from meat.

      Too bad there isn’t a scratch and sniff card to identify what may be the source of the stenchies.

    • tatertot on February 12, 2014 at 20:26

      Sarabeth – You get high marks (no pun intended) from me! You are an adventurous dieter, we need more of those.

      I don’t normally do much dairy other than the odd cheese slice, however, I’ve bought a couple big tubs of greek yogurt and used that to mix my PS in, and there is a definite difference in smells the next day. I wonder if dairy may be a contributor to the gas. I’ll be curious what, if anything, gives you relief.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 21:25


      You said 8? You’re going for the gold? Cool. I love the no fear approach. Plow through. That’s what I did. Farts pop up now & then, but so infrequently I get to missing them.

      I’m betting that it’s the veggies. Challenge: 8 TBS and 2 cups of beans, one after the other (nothing I haven’t done).

      Report back.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 21:50


      I think that’s the first use of that word in 78,000 comments on this blog. ….Wait a second….

      Nope, the second. Here’s the only other:

    • Richard Nikoley on February 12, 2014 at 21:54

      …All I know is that I can have fun with the iFart app on my iPhone.

    • Pamela on February 13, 2014 at 04:18

      Sarabeth, you’re not alone. I’ve experienced the same things as you, eating similarly to you both as to content and timing, although my 8-hour eating window is usually a bit later than yours.

      In my case, the foul fumes seem to be more frequent and voluminous earlier in the day, starting shortly after I get up, and diminish somewhat (certainly not completely) after lunch. I take my first dose of PS (2T in water along with AOR-3) mid-morning on an empty stomach. I consume the second dose (2T PS added to kimchi, kefir and psyllium, along with AOR-3 or Pearls IC) before dinner. I have less output following that round.

      I’ve been assuming that my gut contents are far from ideal and the RS is doing its job, that if I just keep on, things will settle down to a less odiferous state. Several months into this particular regimen (I started last summer at smaller doses), I’m still waiting … and now debating whether to press ahead or try tinkering with dosage and timing.

  71. Michele on February 13, 2014 at 06:54

    Hey Richard, Tater,

    Check this out! Got the following info from my mom in an email (Dad is T2 diabetic and willing to try the PS, two Tbsp’s in the morning in water):

    “Not sure how it happened but Dad’s blood sugar was 80 last night and two nights ago in the 70s. Potato starch? ”

    This is so freakin’ great…dankeschön, merci beaucoup!!!!

  72. […] of articles linking back to various here, 95% open mindedness, estimated 90% positive results in the primary things reported, with the primary negative (though not really a health condition) being flatulence. For most […]

  73. Sarabeth Matilsky on February 14, 2014 at 16:50

    Thoughts on Farts:

    Okay, so I still don’t have a clear action plan to deal with my bloating and severe/stinky fartage, but I’m thinking it through. 🙂 Here are the possibilities (lemme know if you think of any others, except for eating 2 c. beans + 8 tbsp. starch at the same time):

    1. Maybe I’m just providing too much food for gut bacteria, and I can reduce dosage. This is what I’m trying now. For a couple of days I’m going to go down from 8 to 3 tbsp.

    2. I’ve been taking the starch early in the morning on an empty stomach, and not eating until noon-ish. Maybe for some reason it would work better if I take starch before bed instead.

    3. I eat a ton of various plant matter, so it’s definitely not practical to test these one by one in combination with the starch. But I have only just started eating _non_-resistant starches for the first time in nearly four years, so maybe this is a complicating factor – maybe my gut bugs are just in total shock from all the food! I could eliminate the sweet potatoes for a couple of days and see what happens.

    4. Maybe I don’t have the right sorts of bugs inhabiting my gut yet, in which case perhaps Muscling Through and eating tons of starch despite the farts will pay off…as the good guys somehow duke it out and reduce the baddies, while they all swirl around inside my intestines. I’m having a hard time imagining anyone surviving in there, amidst the horrible odors that eminate, but hey – it’s just not my preferred environment, I guess!

    I would love that scratch’n’sniff fart ID system! Might help in my case…or not.

    Any other ideas??

  74. Richard Nikoley on February 14, 2014 at 19:58


    Yea, probably 8 is way too much. Also, do a day or 2 with none now & then. That’s what I believe got me past it for the most part.

  75. The Natural on February 16, 2014 at 08:24

    On another forum, the topic of beans and lentils came up and we ended up discussing about RS.
    Here’s what the guy says about PS:
    “It’s not a miracle or unique though and not unlike fibre, sugar alcs or oglioacharides in promoting intestinal bioflora.
    And this can be addressed through diet without supplementation.”

    What do I say to these kind of people who have such closed minds?

    Just laf…because I don’t have time to waste.


    • Richard Nikoley on February 16, 2014 at 10:33

      You tell him to consult the 30 years of research, thousands of studies about RS specifically on PubMed that’s he’s ignorant of, and leave it at that. Of course, he’s also ignorant of the breadth and scope of research.

    • The Natural on February 16, 2014 at 11:43

      Already did all that Richard. He just seems to have this “dogma” mentality. I am sure he checked your blog because I plugged it there and seems to be of the belief that this is another “miracle product” that we are all trying to hype up (despite me pointing out that no one is trying to sell anything and make money out of it).

      Anyway, he is an ignorant nobody to me and it’s his loss.


  76. […] Blood sugar control is the #1 reported benefit of Resistant Starch. The other 2 are improved sleep and improved toilet #2: The Top Three Reported Benefits of Resistant Starch | Free The Animal […]

  77. The Natural on February 18, 2014 at 11:03

    Ok, so I restarted taking PS after a break of about a month. Now I have added Rx Assist and AOR PBX-3 to PS. I am taking 1T PS+ 1t Psyllium + 1/2t MSM twice a day.

    My TMI is significantly less volume more dense than two days ago when I was not taking PS. I have had this low volume issue on my earlier round on PS (w/o the PBX) also for 3+ months so I know it is not the PBX that is causing it.

    I drink quite a bit of water during the day – about 40 to 50 oz. Is that water intake not sufficient and should I up it to 85 oz (=half # oz to my weight in lbs)?

    I really do miss my TMI. Any suggestions. Please help.


    • Bernhard on February 18, 2014 at 15:28

      Some one suggested adding bran. So we added bran of spelt a few days ago, twice daily, heaped teaspoon each, to the, meanwhile concoction of starch.
      Next days incredible volumes of TMI, also frequency and volumes of TMI, way too much.
      Stopped it now, will start in a week again, maybe just a quarter or less of a teaspoon then.

    • The Natural on February 18, 2014 at 19:49

      where do you find spelt bran? any other bran ok?


    • Bernhard on February 19, 2014 at 06:16

      The Nat
      I wish I could tell you. The recent blog post here focused on wheat and the troubles that come from it, so I dunno. If you had any troubles with grain in general maybe find another starchy/ fiber thing to go with the PS. If grain never troubled you, give it a try, just very small doses to begin with?

  78. agatha on February 18, 2014 at 13:16

    Sigh.. I wish I was getting farts. I’m just getting an uncomfortable feeling at the base of my oesophagus -after taking just 1tsp of PS or tapioca flour.
    So am I getting this right – I must have mild SIBO and I should supplement with SBO for a couple of weeks and then try again? I don’t understand the 8Tbsp recommendation you gave to Annika, Richard – pls could you explain why that would work. Thanks so much for your blog, I have been reading for ages and loving the RS story developing.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 18, 2014 at 14:51


      It’s a wild-ass speculation, try at your own risk deal. I doubt it would hurt.

      Yep, 8TBS, water only, empty stomach in the morning, don’t eat anything for a good while and I’d a good day to not eat until dinner.

      Here’s what (many, not all) bacteria do with RS:

      So, my wild-ass speculation is that unencumbered by foodstuffs (so this would be ideal to do on any liquid fast) is that it may potentially have a flushing effect, where excess (SIBO is “overgrowth”) critters glom on and get carried away. I would suspect that if it works, it would take a number of regimes over time.

  79. agatha on February 19, 2014 at 02:02

    Thanks Richard – I get it but it sounds scary. What if instead of getting carried away the bacteria just have a wonderful party in my small intestine, gas builds up and I explode like a suicide bomber in Iraq… Did you actually do this and what happened?

    • Richard Nikoley on February 20, 2014 at 07:27

      Yep, several times. Nothing happened but I hardly get heartburn and when I do, alcohol is involved, but not always. I think the SBOs helped too.

  80. agatha on February 20, 2014 at 14:54

    Thanks for taking the time to respond Richard – I know you’re super busy. Very very interesting. I will post again when I have experimented further.

  81. Sarabeth Matilsky on February 20, 2014 at 16:32

    Excessive Farting Update:

    Dialing back my potato starch intake has dramatically reduced fartage…even though reducing to 4 tbsp. is the amount I started with in the first place, and which originally caused HUGE amounts of gas. Interesting…

    Something happens along the way, as the bugs get going! That’s my unfocused theory. 🙂

    I have been meaning to try taking the starch in the evening (right now I take it all in the morning on an empty stomach). Has anyone noticed a difference in blood glucose levels when taking only in the morning vs. only in the evening? Somehow, it makes sense to me that it would be good to take on an empty stomach, but I don’t have any rationale – would be curious what others think.

    Does anyone have reason to believe that regulating blood sugar, etc. with the help of potato starch and “PHD”-style eating could have positive effects on Female Hormones? I am so so so motivated to do anything that would help me not feel like shit when I ovulate and then up until my period… This is only the first month I’ve tried potato starch, so I’m not giving up hope that this will help…but I’d love to hear whether other women have gotten their “PMS” and hormones to shape up.

    • quattromomma on February 27, 2014 at 11:00

      Sarabeth—I only have two months experience at 2 Tbsp/day dose, but my PMS and cramps have been greatly improved. After 2 years of <50 carbs/day, PMS was getting increasingly worse and my cycles were shortening to 21-25 days. It felt like I only had about 3 good hormone days per month.

      Last month was the calmest, almost painless period I've had since my SAD days. Libido is back, too. 🙂

    • Sarabeth Matilsky on February 27, 2014 at 11:47

      Thanks so much – this is very good to hear. I’ve had a horrible last two weeks, hormones- and mood-wise (it’s during my luteal phase that I’ve always had terrible PMS, and the horrible-ness descended the day I ovulated). But I’m trying to believe that this is just a worse-before-better phenomenon.

      I also found this article by Jaminet very interesting – lately it’s hard to tell whether I’m experiencing effects (or not) from Resistant Starch, or Absorbable Starch since I started adding this into my diet as per PHD guidelines: . The article is really interesting, concerning why a person might feel worse temporarily when adding carbs back into a formerly-low-carb diet.

    • Richard Nikoley on February 27, 2014 at 18:15

      That’s quite a good find, Sarabeth. Had never seen that.

  82. Janet on February 20, 2014 at 17:10

    I have been taking 2 TBL PS first thing in the morning and 2 TBL when I get home from work, also pretty empty. I have fartage, but it has gotten less and the bloated feeling I had a week ago is gone. I think I am sleeping better–I don’t wake up really until after 4:30, which beats 3 am too many nights. I remember some dreams–normally I do not. I seem to be calmer. I want to start some probiotics soon as I get some ordered. Was LC Paleo and probably VLC the past 2 years and then just didn’t feel right. Strange rash. I have a tiny, long handled whisk which I use in my glass of PS and water. Stir–glug–stir–glug. Sometimes I drop a packet of True Lime in with it for a flavor treat. I will never ever go to the tedium of messing with plantains or trying to eat my way to enough resistant starch. This is quick, cheap and easy. I got’ta life, after all.

  83. Pone on February 28, 2014 at 15:31

    Does anyone have links to research that studies blood sugar regulation after ingesting potato starch at night, during a fast? I have found studies that claim very good blood sugar control when the resistant starch is eaten together *with* a carb meal. I have not located studies that look at resistant starch when the starch is eaten in isolation from other meals.

    A lot of us are making the potato starch the final “meal” of the day before bed, so it’s not directly interacting with any carb meals.

  84. […] Lots of comments from readers reporting the benefits they've seen. […]

    • Pone on March 28, 2014 at 23:52

      I had higher blood sugar after taking potato starch. I wouldn’t generalize my one data point any more than I would those of people posting on this blog. If there were a significant effect, I would expect someone would have studied it and documented it, taking the starch by itself as night.

      I looked and could not find that research. I found lots of studies that take the starch with meals.

  85. […] A way better gut biome (prebiotics and probiotics) helps a lot and affords other benefits that have been tossed around by LOTS of people. […]

  86. G.C. on April 7, 2014 at 05:10

    I started taking potato starch one week ago and have had one totally unexpected but very welcome effect – my long-term, totally incurable peri-oral dermatitus is almost gone! I first developed it about a year ago, and while I’ve able to keep it somewhat under control with tea-tree oil and ACV, it’s never actually resolved and often flares up so badly that it hurts to move my mouth and swells my eyes almost shut. Two days after starting the potato starch I noticed that the rash was much less angry and red than usual, and now after a week, there is no redness at all and about 90% of the bumps are gone. I’m ecstatic!

    • tatertot on April 7, 2014 at 09:09

      G.C. – I had never heard of peri-oral dermatitis (PD) before, so just spent some time google-ing it. WOW!

      Here is a good case study of a 12 years old girl who developed severe PD after getting mercury fillings: (Click ‘get full text pdf to see whole paper) Removal of the mercury cleared the PD up in a few weeks. Do you have many mercury fillings? Scary!

      PD does indeed seem to be tied directly to the gut microbiota, though very little is known about it , and as you said, mostly considered incurable. Mainstream advice is to treat it as a skin condition with steroid creams: with a caveat, “Many cases that come back eventually turn into rosacea.” Niiiiice. This one says “No steroid creams,” but has a laundry list of other topical skin creams and also a laundry list of antibiotics you may find useful. Geeesh.

      Every single thing I have read this morning says that PD is bacterial in nature, but should be treated like a skin condition. One CW medical website did say “Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as malabsorption, have been considered as well.” Ya think?

      Finally, when you get away from mainstream medicine, you find tons of people curing all kinds of dermatitis with probiotics!

      “Dr. Glick and others believe that those suffering with atopic dermatitis have increased levels of intestinal permeability. This means that the intestines’ ability to function as a barrier to toxins and irritants of all kinds is compromised, which may contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis.”

      Yes, I’ll bet you are ecstatic! I hope this results in long-term relief of your PD. Are you taking any probiotics as well, or just potato starch. You may want to get a bottle or two of one of the probiotics talked about around here and cycle through them in the coming weeks…ie. AOR Pro-3, Prescript Assist, Primal Flora, or Primal Defense.

      Hope to hear back from you!

    • G.C. on April 8, 2014 at 12:22

      Tatertot – Thanks for the great links! Your google-quest seems to have turned up similar info to my search when the PD first developed. Most of the medical recommenations are truly terrifying. I quickly realised that dermatologists don’t really know how to deal with it – I didn’t bother seeing a doc myself, but a well meaning dermatologist friend of mine confidently told me to treat it with hydrocortisone cream, which is ironically one of the leading aggravaters of PD! I always suspected that there was a deeper, autoimmune cause of my PD, but it never crossed my mind that the potato starch would have an effect. I’ve been eating fairly clean, VLC Paleo for a few years as a way to control my PCOS. And to a certain extent it worked very well to control hunger, mood and blood sugar. But, like so many others commenting here, I just wasn’t feeling great anymore. It was never something I could definitively describe, but I realise now that I’d systematically starved my gut (our ‘crobes should all wear tiny t-shirts with the slogan ‘we are the 99%’) and hence the rise of problems I’d never had before, particulary skin issues like eczema and PD. Based on everything I’ve been reading here, I decided to ditch the VLC and start reintroducing carbs, starting with the potato starch. And as I mentioned before, the improvement was almost immediate and a scant 10 days later the rash is virtually gone. I can’t emphasise how difficult a condition it is to control. Flare-ups are so fickle and unpredictable, and remedies that relieved the pain one day would suddenly no longer be effective the next. So yes, I’m thrilled! At the moment I’m only supplementing with the starch. I live in South Africa and the probiotics you recommend are not available here. I have managed to find a local manufacturer of SBOs though so I’m hopeful, but most people here have barely heard of regular probiotics, never mind SBOs!

      Thank you and Richard and all the contributors for being so generous with sharing your knowledge. It’s very easy to become overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information – much of it conflicting – that one encouters when you make the decision to heal yourself at the deepest, gut level. But I’m a huge fan of Occam and his razor, and what you’re all writing about resistant starch is so elegant in it’s simplicity, that gut complexity notwithstanding, it just feels right. And the proof for me lies in the delight of not having the Homer Simpson muzzle anymore!

    • Richard Nikoley on April 8, 2014 at 16:52

      GC, I just promoted your comment all over my social media. I think I did “titillate,”

    • G.C. on April 15, 2014 at 03:06

      @tatertot UPDATE: So after 2 weeks of taking PS my dermatitis is gone! And that’s not all… I also suffer from PMLE (polymorphic light eruption) on my arms. It’s an auto-immune response to the effect of UVA light on the skin which causes swelling and burning and takes about 4 weeks to heal. So I’ve been in long sleeves the last year, which in sunny sunny Cape Town is not easy. After the extraordinary improvement in my facial dermatitis after starting PS, I decided to risk it and went outside this weekend in the middle of a heat wave and made sure I got a good wallop of sun on my arms. I was nervous because it is a painful condition, but again, amazingly, nothing! Usually it takes no more than a couple of minutes of exposure for the reaction to occur, but I got at least half an hour of sun and absolutely no reaction! Before discovering this site, it would never have occurred to me to infer a direct, causal relationship between years of VLC and the skin conditions I’ve developed in the last year or so. That something as simple as resistant starch could be the answer is remarkable. Given that nothing else in my diet or routine has changed since starting with the PS, I can say with confidence that there have not been any confounding factors here. This is all thanks to the PS.

      • Teddy on August 9, 2016 at 20:01

        I know it has been a long time since you posted this but I just found it. I am struggling with a very annoying skin condition for 9 years already. How much did you take and did the results last?

    • Duck Dodgers on April 15, 2014 at 21:27

      Buckwheat allergies are considered to be rare, but they do happen:

      That’s actually why buckwheat isn’t officially on the PHD. But, it’s considered to be fine for the large majority who don’t have allergies.

    • tatertot on April 15, 2014 at 08:13

      Amazing! I hope the results are long-term. Update us periodically here and let us know how it all proceeds.

      A lot of your problems sound similar to what people with Lupus go through.

    • Bernhard on April 15, 2014 at 11:41

      polymorphic light eruption. Just one question. Did you or do you consume buckwheat?

    • Brian on April 15, 2014 at 12:00

      Is buckwheat as effective as PS or at taters, beans and rice?

    • Bernhard on April 15, 2014 at 12:25

      Actually I meant to warn about buckwheat, here is what I wrote on another group in January:
      Update and warning -10. Jan.
      CAUTION with buckwheat. A WARNING about the recipe below.
      About a week into the buckwheat pancakes one out of three people -I, turns out allergic against buckwheat (most likely it is the buckwheat).
      WE had large amounts, ok.
      Never had a thing like this before, itching skin, scratching leaves hives all over, day three now of hives and only realized the connection today.
      Please be careful when considering buckwheat as we did.
      And then wrote an update: As I just poisoned myself with buckwheat (even the grain not the leaves) you may be interested in reviewing your juicing routine. Here is a report on buckwheat green juicing poisoning:

      The crazy itch and pimples are gone now, even lightbulbs were enough to trigger the itch and huge pimples within minutes, had to spend the day covered head to toe, then bought light resistant clothing.
      Below an excerpt from the last link, and this is with me until now, to cold exposed hands and feet and YES ears! start to itch like crazy, turn incredibly deep red and itch for as long as it takes to get warm again.
      Excerpt:” In addition to the burning sensation, people suffering from fagopyrism often complain of feeling a numb, fuzzy, buzzing impression when they scratch or inadvertently hit their hands on something. Sufferers also report that their hands feel painfully cold when placed in cold water or when in contact with a cold object, even if only for a few seconds.”
      The light exposure problem resolved within weeks of ending to consume buckwheat, the cold exposure problem is with me till now.

    • David on April 15, 2014 at 12:55


      Was this buckwheat fermented before consumption? I always soak it for 24 to 48 hours and rinse thoroughly. No one I’ve served it to has reported any problems.

    • Bernhard on April 15, 2014 at 13:03

      Not fermented, no. Soaked minimum 6 hours to overnight 12 hours. Actually it appears rare that people have problems with the seed as well (compared to the greens which have way more fagopyrin). Just wanted to say careful and in case people experience this you’d need to consult with an (old) veterinarian to find out what’s going on with you. Good to hear you have no problems with buckwheat, here 2 out of 3 who indulged in buckwheat pancakes had no problem either, which I’m grateful for.

    • LaFrite on April 16, 2014 at 00:17

      Geeze! I never heard of it … I know no one with such allergy to “sarrasin”. Man! That would suck …

    • Bernhard on April 16, 2014 at 00:51

      LaFrite “I know no one with such allergy to “sarrasin”. ”

      Yes you do – me.

    • LaFrite on April 16, 2014 at 01:27

      Sorry, I meant to say “in the circle of people I know personally”.

  87. T-Nat on April 7, 2014 at 09:32

    I am very thrilled to report another cool PS benefit. My son was coming down with what definitely appeared to be a case of strep or some other kind of severe throat infection- swollen and inflamed throat, could not swallow his food, coughing and generally ill. He woke up with this on Saturday morning. In the evening I decided to have him try potato starch instead of going the usual Amoxicillin way that his doctor would have prescribed.

    I made him gargle his throat with PS solution and then made him swish his mouth for about 5 minutes (PS pulling:-). By Sunday morning he was 95% fixed…he didn’t even need another gargle but I just made him do it again in the night just in case. He is back to normal Monday morning.

    Super thrilled that I didn’t have to put him through another round of ABX!

    Thanks again to Richard, Tim and Dr. BG. You guys rock!!!


    • xtrader on April 7, 2014 at 11:35

      It appears that RS is curing everything from society’s ills to pederasty! Good show Richard! …and Toto-tot too!

  88. gabriella kadar on April 8, 2014 at 18:11

    I love it: ‘our ‘crobes should all wear tiny t-shirts with the slogan ‘we are the 99%’ The visuals, oh the visuals!

    Are you adverse to ‘mealie meal’? That keeps gut pH lower. I’ve never tried it unless it’s like polenta.

    • G.C. on April 9, 2014 at 09:32

      I wrote that about the t-shirt wearng ‘crobes on a whim, but I’m now quite pre-occupied with contemplating the OCCUPY movement that’s going on in my guts right now…

      Mielie meal can be much like polenta, but most in southern africa is made from white maize which is very starchy. The uncooked meal is basically a white powder that cooks into a sticky mass of pure starch. In SA it’s called ‘pap’ and in Zimbabwe ‘sadza’, and is pretty much a staple. I’ve never heard of its Ph lowering properties – I just know it’s a sugar bomb.

  89. Erica on April 21, 2014 at 15:43

    I started the RS experiment April 15, 2 T/day. Slept great the first 2-3 days, vivid dreams. Blood sugar remained about what it had been, which is still too high in the low 200s. Took 4 T PS 3 days ago and whoa, the flatulence was not fun (but at least it didn’t smell). Went back to 2T for now.

    Today at 4pm, after walking home from work, my blood glucose reading was 143! My diet has been LCHF for the past month and a half (gave up all sugar and grains…again), and managed to go from blood sugars of 300s down to 200s. I’m hoping 143 is my new normal. This is with no meds and I am T2D.

  90. Michele on February 17, 2015 at 02:40

    This is just so §”§$”§ incredible I had to post. For some background – dad has type II diabetes. Suggested to the parents to try resistant starch in the form of potato starch and cooked and cooled potatoes, rice etc. Since starting about a year ago, the insulin he takes has been lowered, a bit of weightloss and some other general improvements. He’s even started on the probiotics. My mother offered the info on resistant starch to the “PA” (not sure if she meant “doctor”) when she called to relay how happy they were with my dad’s results. Here’s what my mom said the PA told her:
    “We were happy to learn that dad is doing so well according to the PA at the metabolic office. When I offered the info about the probiotics and the potato starch she responded with a less than interested inquiry. She also offered the statement that “you know potatos are a carbohydrate.” So I am left with the impression that she looks at what we are doing as a less than credible attempt to keep dad on a good track to diabetic control but no harm done. I really think that judging from his A1C that both are having a positive effect and will continue to use them. ”
    I am speechless at the ignorance of some medical professionals.

  91. James H on August 1, 2018 at 22:12

    Hey guys, newbie here but I’m keen to get started with resistant starch!

    I just had a look on the Bob’s Red Mill website and they say their potato starch is made from boiled potatoes. Is that ok or does that alter the resistant starch? Is there a raw potato starch out there?



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