What Do You Mean When You Say Ketosis?


One of the reasons for pursuing my Ketotard Chronicles campaign is to promote a greater sense of critical distinction when talking about ketogenic diets or other situations where ketones are elevated.

I think there exists a great deal of confusion, conflation, and in some cases, outright obfuscation and larceny (which I’ve touched on). Basically, “Keto” has become synonymous with The Epileptic Diet, a serious, clinical-level, supervised intervention to help diminish seizures in some people. However, such diets are by no means without serious complications in some subjects (see also: Stewart, et al., 2001, Kang, et al., 2004, Kang, et al., 2005, Bank, et al., 2008, Suo, et al., 2013, and Ketogenic Diet Literature Review – PDF).

People don’t even talk about “Atkins Induction” anymore, a two-week carbohydrate restricted diet that should have most people entering ketosis prior to going on some form of Atkins Maintenance, a more flexible LC approach that could have some people consuming upwards of 100 – 120g of carbohydrate daily. Those were the days.  But were they the “ketogenic Days?””

Well, as we shall see, it depends. It depends both upon dietary factors and also, what people generally regard as ketogenic.

I’ll source from this paper: Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review (Obesity; Joseph C. Anderson, 2015). The abstract:


Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters.


BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non‐dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement.


When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non‐invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects.

Here’s the first thing to jump out at me: “BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism.”

Now put your thinking caps on, here, and note the distinction. This is part of the Ketotard problem. They see “ketones” and think, instinctively, ‘oh, fat oxidation (true), so, per se body fat loss (not necessarily).’ Of course, elevated ketones mean that some kinda fat is being burned somewhere. It does not follow, necessarily, that it’s body fat being recruited and burned over and above what’s being stored after meals, i.e., resultant net body fat loss.

So, what this means in terms of the quoted sentence, above, is that while BrAce is “most affected” by dietary macronutrient composition and less so by calorie restriction that’s not the case of actual body fat loss. This is the crux of the confusion and conflation going on because, actual body fat loss is “most affected” by calorie restriction, and NOT dietary macronutrient composition. To put it another way, macro composition can exert causal tendencies in terms of how much breath acetone you measure—which correlates with actual body fat loss (provided calories are also reduced)—but it’s not the ketones causing that, it’s the caloric deficit causing it and the ketones being produced by that are an effect of the cause of eating below energy balance significantly and consistently.

Here, I’ll show you and it’s right in the paper if you read carefully enough. First is that we must get over the notion that ketone elevation is an exclusive function of very low carbohydrate intake (and high-fat combined lowish protein in current Ketotarded iterations). “”ketosis” exists on a spectrum.


They only include the most extreme form of calorie restriction which is outright fasting, but that too exists on its own spectrum depending upon how much restriction and also, what the macro composition is within the context of that energy intake deprivation. Here’s one of the papers Anderson reviewed showing clearly that one can be fully in ketosis on a high-carbohydrate diet, provided calories are sufficiently restricted.

Following these studies, Kundu et al. performed a confirmative study (full text). BrAce was measured in humans (n = 58) on a 30 day calorie restriction diet 8. Initial body weights were 10‐30% over the ideal weight (a body mass index, BMI, range of 27.5‐32.5 with ideal BMI = 25 kg m−2). The composition of the diet was high carbohydrate, moderate protein, and low fat. Breath samples, collected upon awakening, sampled the first 380ml of exhaled breath after a 5 s breath hold. On average, BrAce increased over the first 8 days and reached a relative stable plateau after day 7. Fat loss (g day−1) increased with the average BrAce after day 7. Fat loss and BrAce were greater for experimental subjects than controls. Maintaining a BrAce= 85 nM (∼2.1 ppm) corresponded to a fat loss of 227 g week−1 (0.5 lbs week−1). [emphasis added]

Here’s another study where, though I could find no figures on macro composition or calories consumed…since it’s a post-surgery liquid diet provided by the hospital, you can bet it’s not HFLC (Googling around suggests that these liquid diets provide a minimum of 200g/d carbohydrate and should not be sugar-free.”)

Ross 25 described a patient who after oral surgery had his mouth “wired shut.” The patient consumed a liquid diet during the weeks following surgery. At 3 weeks post‐surgery, BrAce was almost four‐fold greater than the baseline value (∼0.5 ppm). During this time, the patient lost 18 lbs of body weight most likely due to caloric restriction from the imposed liquid diet. The proportion of this weight loss resulting from fat loss was not measured.

Here’s a glaring detail from the paper.

Subjects, who habitually ate a mixed composition diet, ate a series of a high‐fat meals (>80% fat) over the course of 12 h. BrAce increased fourfold over those hours 2, 21, 22.

There’s your Fauxtosis right there. These are ketones from dietary fat, not body fat. This is “ketosis” for the purpose of fooling one’s self and for promoting the prestige and income of various Ketoshyster Usual Suspects.

Join My New Facebook Group: “Richard Nikoley’s Ketotard Chronicles

Here’s a bit for the numbskulls out there who seem to think it’s only eating HFLC that can make you into one of those very elusive so-called fat burners. Everyone’s a damn fat burner. All day. Every day. Exercise boosts it. You can hit the paper to check the references.

Just as a reduced calorie diet can increase BrAce, exercise can increase BrAce levels. In multiple studies, BrAce was twofold greater at the end than the beginning of exercise 44, 45, 46. BrAce is expected to increase during exercise. In some subjects, BrAce fell at the onset of exercise and then increased with continued exercise 45. During graded exercise tests, BrAce increased (∼twofold) with exercise intensity 44, 46, 47, maximum BrAce corresponded to the onset of the lactate threshold 48, and the fat oxidation rate was shown to be logarithmically related to BrAce 44. Additionally, the fat oxidation rate and BrAce were shown to have parallel increases over 2 h of steady treadmill exercise 44.

Exercise can affect day‐to‐day measurements of BrAce. Subjects submitting to caloric restriction and daily exercise had greater daily BrAce than caloric restriction alone 24, 27. In one study, exercise alone (no caloric restriction) increased day‐to‐day BrAce 29. […]

Studies showed the initial state of ketosis affected BOHB changes during exercise 52. In subjects on a standard moderate‐ to high‐carbohydrate diet, exercise caused increased BOHB throughout exercise 49. […]

…Ingesting carbohydrate in the minutes after the start of exercise reduced fat oxidation for low‐ to moderate‐intensity exercise but did not appear to impact fat oxidation for high‐intensity exercise 50.

Now, here’s the money quote for all the Ketotards out there.

Like carbon dioxide, acetone is a by‐product of metabolism. By itself, the presence of acetone in exhaled breath does not indicate underlying disease. Low concentrations (1 to 2 ppm) of breath acetone represent a basal level of ketosis. High levels of breath acetone (75 to 1,250 ppm), associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, represent the other end of the breath acetone spectrum. Between these extremes lie healthy individuals participating in high‐fat, low‐carbohydrate (HFLC) diets, calorie restriction diets, and fasting. Their BrAce can span two orders of magnitude (Figure 1).

Within that intermediate group are individuals on HFLC diets in which the macronutrient composition (i.e., fat, carbohydrate, and protein) is altered relative to the standard mixed diet. In non‐diabetic subjects, the dietary composition appears to have the greatest impact on BrAce relative to the other factors reviewed. This factor has the greatest impact because acetone is produced when fat is metabolized; increased fat metabolism causes increased acetone production. Eating a standard mixed diet will result in a basal ketosis and BrAce of 1 to 2 ppm. Changing to a HFLC diet (carbohydrate intake <50 g day−1) causes the body to shift from using carbohydrates to using fats as its primary energy source. Relying on fats as the primary energy source increases ketosis levels to what has been termed “nutritional ketosis.” Adults in nutritional ketosis have BOHB ranging from 0.5‐3.0 mM 13, 14, 20, which corresponds to a breath acetone range of 4 to 30 ppm (Figure 2). As important, nutritional ketosis resulting from a HFLC diet increases fat oxidation rates as compared to a standard mixed diet because the primary energy substrate is fat 50. [emphasis added]

See? Want more?

Less extreme than fasting is moderate caloric restriction which allows some food intake and appears to cause modest changes in breath acetone. Breath acetone levels rise as stored fat is metabolized to make up the difference between basal energy requirements and caloric intake. Using caloric restriction, multiple studies have shown a correlation between fat loss and increases in breath acetone 8, 24, 25, 27, 29. Specifically, individuals that maintain a breath acetone of 2 ppm should realize a fat loss rate of at least 114‐227 g week−1, based on the scientific literature 8, 27, 29. On the high end, BrAce could reach 8 ppm which could correspond to a fat loss of 1,200 g week−1 8.

Now let’s quote the paper’s conclusion.

Endogenous breath acetone is correlated with and can be used to understand the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. Maintaining a 2 ppm BrAce while on a calorie restriction diet should cause a fat loss rate of ∼227 g week−1. Acetone is correlated with fat loss because it and two other ketone bodies are the by‐products of fat metabolism. Breath acetone is strongly correlated with the blood ketone body BOHB. Breath acetone can range in concentration from 1 ppm in healthy non‐dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. In healthy individuals, breath acetone is affected by multiple factors. Dietary macronutrient composition has the greatest impact followed, in rank order, by caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other factors. Because of its relationship to fat metabolism, a high‐fat, low‐carbohydrate diet will generate more breath acetone than a standard mixed diet. A reduction in consumed calories relative to that needed for weight maintenance can increase breath acetone and fat loss. [emphasis added]

Putting all this together, here’s the takeaway:

  1. Breath acetone (and other ketones) are markers of fat oxidation
  2. Fat oxidation can be dietary fat, body fat, or both
  3. A very high-fat dietary intake will produce higher levels of elevated ketones because the primary energy intake is fat
  4. The only way to ensure that your measured ketones are primary the by-product of body fat and not dietary fat oxidation is to sustain a significant average energy intake deficit
  5. The variation in ketone elevation between subjects once a calorie deficit is in place is not only representative of body fat loss—which should be similar for similar subjects on similar caloric restriction—but is also representative of differences in macro composition.

In other words, on point 5, given roughly the same amount of fat loss between two calorie-restricted dieters, one low-fat-high-carb and the other, low-carb-high-fat, we would expect a higher level of measured ketones in the latter dieter since his higher levels of dietary fat will produce more “fauxtones” when they’re oxidized. At the extreme, you have many Ketotards out there actually eating to energy excess (See the section Do You Consume Less Food When Eating a High Fat Diet? here) seeing all these fauxtones and they think they’re in body-fat-loss ketosis when they’re only in fauxtosis.

So, in conclusion, I can find only one benefit to an LC diet in terms of sustained body fat loss and that is adherence in free living situations. And that makes perfect sense since the most delicious foods (meat, fish, and fowl) are found there and they are the best sources of protein. Swapping out carbohydrate (or, for that matter, fat) for higher levels of protein is really the perfect dietary strategy and the better approach is the one you find yourself better sticking to for the long haul.

So the next time someone says they’re in ketosis or doing a ketogenic diet, ask them which kind and thereby, expose their ignorance for them.

Elixa Probiotic is a British biotech manufacturer in Oxford, UK. U.S. Demand is now so high they’ve established distribution centers in Illinois, Nevada, and New Jersey.

Still, sell-outs happen regularly, so order now to avoid a waiting list.

Richard Nikoley

I'm Richard Nikoley. Free The Animal began in 2003 and as of 2021, contains 5,000 posts. I blog what I wish...from health, diet, and food to travel and lifestyle; to politics, social antagonism, expat-living location and time independent—while you sleep—income. I celebrate the audacity and hubris to live by your own exclusive authority and take your own chances. Read More


  1. Jim on August 30, 2017 at 12:14

    Lol, so I’m guessing you did not write the foreword for Sisson’s new book that he announced today?

  2. thhq on August 30, 2017 at 14:21

    I started playing with a cheap breathalyzer from WalMart a couple of days ago. The instructions say that it detects acetone as well as alcohol, so IMO it’s at least a semi functional BrAce tool. So far I read zero under all conditions of food, sleep, morning breath and exercise….except when there is alcohol. A glass of red wine produces a 4ppm reading 20 minutes after consumption. Just like it’s supposed to.

    In reading a lot of links, people in nutritional ketosis blow 4-5 ppm BrAce. Dr. Eades warns people that they will register drunk on a breathalyzer if they’re pulled over. Which brings up a key point. If you’re in the “zone” people should be able to easily smell your acetone breath.

    The other thing that strikes me is a possible reason that HFLCers and Paleos are easy drunks. When you’re running high blood ketones and have a drink, you put your bloodstream on chemical overload. The alcohol is probably a preferred brain food over ketones.

    The ketotard has no recourse to the best treatment for the condition either. A big 2AM bowl of fried rice.

  3. Tim Steele on August 30, 2017 at 16:23

    lol of the day:

    “While enthusiasts are vigorously debating the best long-term keto strategy, or whether keto is even appropriate for certain individuals, we must acknowledge that fat- and keto-adapted was the default factory setting of our ancestors.

    It’s likely that over the last 2.5 million years, most of our ancestors were in ketosis for a great portion of their lives. Consequently, we retain this hard-wired genetic predisposition to function with fat as our primary fuel source. Acknowledging this, Robb Wolf further speculates that going keto may deliver a reset effect at the genetic level, such that it can help you recover from leaky gut and autoimmune-related health conditions, metabolic damage caused by yo-yo dieting, and even exposure to environmental toxins.”

    • Charles on August 30, 2017 at 16:29

      charles 3 hours 2 minutes ago
      “I’ve been really focused on sustaining nutritional ketosis this year and monitoring my blood ketone and glucose levels in response to eating patterns.” SO – how is ketosis working out for JImmy Moore??

      Nocona1 hour 40 minutes ago
      He eats way too much fat and is way too low in protein. I’ll bet the difference between Mark’s book and Jimmy’s work on the subject will be miles apart. I guess we will soon find out.

    • Sassysquatch on August 31, 2017 at 05:56

      I watched Sisson’s 4 minute promotional ‘interview’. He says our bodies need to be ‘taught’ how to burn fat. What a bunch of B.S. I think I’ll just stick to my taters, beans, whole grains, veggies and fruits, eat to satisaction and watch the ‘diet circus’ continue on…..and on……and on…..and on!

    • hap on August 31, 2017 at 16:50

      Fasting….which happens to result in ketosis,among other things can activate pathways that reset various genetic controls and normalize many metabolic functions.

      Ketosis alone…no matter the the net energy equation……doubtful. Sisson should know this.

  4. Charles on August 30, 2017 at 16:27
    A. KEKWICK M.A., M.B. Cantab., F.R.C.P.

    1. It is much more difficult to induce ketosis in obese than in non-obese people.
    2. The difference does not appear to depend on a higher rate of utilisation or excretion of ketone bodies by the obese. After intravenous injection of sodium &bgr;-hydroxybutyrate the rate of disappearance of this ketone body from the blood was found to be the same in obese as in non-obese people. Less than 1 % of the injected dose was excreted in the urine: the amount excreted was the same in the two groups.
    3. Presumably, then, the rate of production of ketone bodies is less in the obese.
    4. In non-obese people given a high-fat diet the development of ketonsemia and ketosis was preceded by a fall in the fasting blood-sugar concentration. In obese people on this diet, there was no such fall or it was small; and they did not develop ketosis to any significant degree.
    5. Reasons are given for believing that net conversion of fat to carbohydrate took place in both groups. It is suggested that obese people may be able to turn fat into carbohydrate at a higher rate than non-obese people.

    • Richard Nikoley on August 30, 2017 at 16:46

      Hahahahaha Charles. I guess this means that for Jimmy Moore, butter is the new chocolate cake. 🙂

  5. Charles on August 30, 2017 at 16:58


    Orange is the new black

  6. yuma on August 30, 2017 at 17:19

    Richard, isn’t a high protein diet bad for people that have cancer? Are these folks condemned to JMs diet?

    • Richard Nikoley on August 30, 2017 at 17:38


      I honestly haven’t looked into that and have not brushed up on mTOR in a long time in spite of being admonished to do so.

      That said, there is no way kicking protein to 25% is going to come with average added cancer risk in my view. I think the epidemiology on protein intake and cancer is probably all over the map.

      Moreover, some cancer tumors love ketones and they grow and metastasize faster in Keto and autophagic environments.

    • JP on August 31, 2017 at 12:14

      If you have cancer or are concerned about too much protein, you could follow a high-carb, low-fat, low-protein diet…something McDougalish. I’d take that over Jimmy’s diet any day of the week. All of the gurus that push those diets (McDougal, Ornish, Neil Barnard, etc.) are thin and look a lot better than JM.

  7. Chris on August 30, 2017 at 21:40


    Thanks for your continued work on all this. You did a great job in this post of cutting the the bullshit.

    hope life is good in FB jail

    • Richard Nikoley on August 31, 2017 at 06:47

      Probably about another two weeks to go.

  8. Robert on August 30, 2017 at 23:02

    Can someone explain why so many low-carbers are not in ketosis? I find this hard to wrap my head around. Many are quite strict, but not strict enough, and therefore register zero ketones. But what are they burning for energy then? Take this example:

    How can eating 30 g carbs and eating 11 g be the difference between zero ketones and optimal ketosis? 30 g isn’t enough for the brain, protein is low. So he must be burning the huge amounts of fat he’s eating, why isn’t he in ketosis?

    • Richard Nikoley on August 31, 2017 at 07:00

      Robert, I suspect he was simplynovereating calories to such an extent there was enough conversion to glucose some places that all tanks were topped off. Or, who knows?

      Thing is, as he’s there cutting this and cutting that, he even mentioned reducing cream, he was also reducing energy intake.

    • Robert on August 31, 2017 at 08:30

      Perhaps Dr. Eades would argue that the guy really was in ketosis, you just can’t measure it due to a secret metabolic pathway only he knows about…

  9. Bill on August 31, 2017 at 04:15

    Robert, one word: semen.

    It’s rich in fructose and ketotards sugar-starved brains can’t resist its sweet, sweet taste. Behind every glory hole in San Francisco is keto spunk monkey desperately waiting for his next fix.

  10. Ray on August 31, 2017 at 07:59


    Where does this come from? (my understanding is that cancer cells survive by fermenting glucose or glutamine)

    “Moreover, some cancer tumors love ketones and they grow and metastasize faster in Keto and autophagic environments.”

  11. Bret on August 31, 2017 at 09:04

    And, it’s been beat to death, but human breast milk always comes to mind when discussing macro ratios.

    If carbs were so damn fattening and deleterious to health, then why does a brand new baby get it as 44.3% of his caloric intake right from mommy’s naturally paleo teats?

    Even if ratios were altered in adulthood — say 1/3 each, for simplicity — the point is that your body is still using all three macronutrients in its daily functioning. On a 2400 kcal diet, if you actively skipped the fat and left the carbs and protein alone (in absolute quantity), you’d be giving your body an 800 kcal advantage out of its own hips, thighs, and beer belly. Even if 200 kcal sneaks into your food (due to natural packaging with animal protein), your diet would still have a weekly deficit of 3,000 kcal (more for a heavy person with a lot of “maintenance” caloric needs), which is 44 lbs a year by the 3500-per-lb fallacy.

    Don’t “eat fat to lose fat.” That’s bogus. Instead, “feed” fat to your body from your own fat tissue. And for God’s sake, keep added fat out of your carbs. Quickest way to disaster is to put a bunch of oil, butter, cheese, etc into your rice, beans, potatoes, salads, etc. It adds up before you know it.

    • Bret on August 31, 2017 at 09:10

      Evidently, I can’t do math. 600 kcal daily deficit is 4,200 weekly. 62 lbs per year.

    • hap on August 31, 2017 at 17:27

      Infants require access to ready carbs…..lots of growth and development signalling .

    • La Frite on September 1, 2017 at 06:29

      “And for God’s sake, keep added fat out of your carbs.”

      I don’t agree with that. You can perfectly eat fat + carbs at the same time and not gain weight, just make sure you don’t overeat overall. If you add a lot of proteins on top of that, excess amino acids will certainly be used as fuel as well if they aren’t used for anything else, in which case fat will not be readily used (that is why it is a good idea to practice resistance training so you know where ingested proteins will be prioritized).

      So the biggest factor to keep in mind is how much you eat, not so much what (so long as you keep your diet real, i.e. you eat foods without any sort of bias). To achieve this, it does help to keep too palatable and caloric items out of your house. And the day you know you will give in (for social reasons, usually), a quick 24h fast the eve or the day after the binge will correct things, or maybe skip dinner a couple of times a week if that’s a rhythm you feel comfortable with (after many years of experimenting, I ended up doing this – it’s easy and keeps me lean). The caloric balance should be managed long term, in any way you feel good about (from daily IF or cal redux for 2 weeks like a potato hack, etc) so long as you’re mindful about it.

    • Bret on September 1, 2017 at 07:18

      “I don’t agree with that. You can perfectly eat fat + carbs at the same time and not gain weight,”

      I’m talking to the people who want to lose weight, and especially those who are frustrated with lack of progress. Added fat is a bad idea for 99% of them.

    • La Frite on September 1, 2017 at 07:37

      Fat people wanting to lose fat should just eat less – ONE way to do so is to remove added fat, it will cut calories by a substantial amount and will probably work for a while. I don’t disagree at all 🙂
      But eventually a new calorie balance sets in as weight is lost. If you already moved all added fat, and still have body fat to lose, what is next ? 😉

      So while removing added fat to start with is a very good idea, one has to think of a longer term strategy, which will probably involve some lifestyle changes other than eating less for keeping a weight at a lean body state without too much hassle.

    • JP on September 1, 2017 at 08:47

      “keep added fat out of your carbs. Quickest way to disaster is to put a bunch of oil, butter, cheese, etc into your rice, beans, potatoes, salads, etc. It adds up before you know it.”

      Oh but Bulletproof Coffee ® is a metabolic miracle! Tibetan yak butter has anti-calories or something!

      Seriously, I agree. And if you do occasionally ad something oily, use a real food that has nutrients and isn’t 100% fat–avocados, nuts or nut butter, etc.

  12. Nocona on August 31, 2017 at 11:16

    So can we now say that ketosis causes halitosis?

    • thhq on August 31, 2017 at 12:32

      Finger nail polish remover breath.

      Not the same as ordinary morning breath.

  13. Robert on August 31, 2017 at 11:17

    A shout-out: does someone have access to Colpo’s Fat Loss Bible? I’m arguing against the insulin hypothesis on dietdoctor, so I’m interested in his review of all the metabolic ward studies, and references to all those studies.

    Or if someone has other studies or similar falsifying the insulin hypothesis.

  14. Marc on August 31, 2017 at 18:45

    Anyone familiar with this guy:

    He has some superb links to studies I had not seen before.
    Lots of experience and insight from a “healthy guy” that got sick…
    Curious if anyone has seen…he addresses” keto”

    (No affiliation whatsoever )

    Thanks in advance .

    Richard, really appreciated the “tone” of this post, especially in light of the insane amount of information presented . Thank you.

    • Nocona on September 1, 2017 at 16:20

      I’ve looked at this guys stuff. It’s worth a read. Some good links. Pretty much a paleo/primal outlook through and through. Sunlight, sleep, stress, quality food and water, movement, etc. etc.

      Just a heads up…some cancers actually get worse on keto.

    • Richard Nikoley on September 1, 2017 at 17:02

      Well, that’s the deal. I don’t mind at all (why should I) if Keto from high fat to fasting is effective against some cancers. What I object to is the simplistic notion that because they have alien mito, then Keto is the obvious cure all and everybody is just stupid because they are so attached to donuts or something.

    • Noconan on September 3, 2017 at 17:33

      Marc, one thing from that guys site that looks somewhat interesting to me is his info. on the hyperbolic chamber. Never tried that before. A place in my home town just opened a spot that offers it. Maybe I’ll give ‘er a swing. There is so much god damned smoke where I live right now that some pure oxygen sure wouldn’t hurt.

  15. Shander on December 16, 2017 at 13:04

    Adherence… I think you nail it there… however I still think there is so room to step beyond protein factors and into insulin fluctuations.

    It might be far more comfortable to maintain a calorie deficit without rapid insulin spikes carbs give you and fat doesn’t

    … so yeah… not ketones. .. but lack of insulin fluctuations is the reason

    … all protein? … I’m still not 100% sure which science to believe but it does seem plausible that there might be an upper limit on how much protein our body can make best use of as well as mood issues from protein produced insulin that can be avoided burning fat instead at the point where you have had enough protein for maximum muscle growth and sufficient saitey

    So. … no carbs works great for adherence and I think filling in with fat over about 150g of protein also keeps me more even keep than more protein calories

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